SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Operations — Huntington Bancshares Incorporated (Huntington or the Company) is a multi-state diversified regional bank holding company organized under Maryland law in 1966 and headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. Through its subsidiaries, including its bank subsidiary, The Huntington National Bank (the Bank), Huntington is engaged in providing full-service commercial and consumer banking services, mortgage banking services, automobile financing, recreational vehicle and marine financing, equipment financing, inventory finance, investment management, trust services, brokerage services, insurance products and services, and other financial products and services. Huntington’s full-service branches and private client group offices are primarily located in Ohio, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Wisconsin. Select financial services and other activities are also conducted in various other states. International banking services are available through the headquarters office in Columbus, Ohio.
Basis of Presentation — The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Huntington and its majority-owned subsidiaries and are presented in accordance with GAAP. All intercompany transactions and balances are eliminated in consolidation. Entities in which Huntington holds a controlling financial interest are consolidated. For a voting interest entity, a controlling financial interest is generally where Huntington holds, directly or indirectly, more than 50 percent of the outstanding voting shares. For a variable interest entity (VIE), a controlling financial interest is where Huntington has the power to direct the activities of an entity that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance and has an obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE. For consolidated entities where Huntington holds less than a 100% interest, Huntington recognizes non-controlling interest (included in shareholders’ equity) for the equity held by minority shareholders and non-controlling profit or loss (included in noninterest expense) for the portion of the entity’s earnings attributable to minority interests. Investments in companies that are not consolidated are accounted for using the equity method when Huntington has the ability to exert significant influence. Investments in non-marketable equity securities for which Huntington does not have the ability to exert significant influence are generally accounted for using the cost method adjusted for impairment and other changes in observable prices. Investments in private investment partnerships that are accounted for under the equity method or the cost method are included in other assets and Huntington’s earnings in equity investments are included in other noninterest income. Investments accounted for under the cost and equity methods are periodically evaluated for impairment.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that significantly affect amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements. Huntington utilizes processes that involve the use of significant estimates and the judgments of management in determining the amount of its allowance for credit losses, income taxes, as well as fair value measurements of investment securities, derivative instruments, goodwill, other intangible assets, pension assets and liabilities, short-term borrowings, mortgage servicing rights, and loans held for sale. As with any estimate, actual results could differ from those estimates.
For statements of cash flows purposes, cash and cash equivalents are defined as the sum of cash and due from banks and interest-bearing deposits at Federal Reserve Bank.
Resale and Repurchase Agreements — Securities purchased under agreements to resell and securities sold under agreements to repurchase are treated as collateralized financing transactions and are recorded at the amounts at which the securities were acquired or sold plus accrued interest. The fair value of collateral either received from or provided to a third-party is monitored and additional collateral is obtained or requested to be returned to Huntington in accordance with the agreement.
Securities — Securities purchased with the intention of recognizing short-term profits or which are actively bought and sold are classified as trading account securities and reported at fair value. The unrealized gains or losses on trading account securities are recorded in other noninterest income. Debt securities purchased that Huntington has the positive intent and ability to hold to their maturity are classified as held-to-maturity securities. Held-to-maturity securities are recorded at amortized cost. All other debt securities are classified as available-for-sale securities. Available-for-sale securities are recognized and measured at fair value with any change in the fair value recognized in other comprehensive income. All equity securities are classified as other securities.
Securities transactions are recognized on the trade date (the date the order to buy or sell is executed). The carrying value plus any related accumulated OCI balance of sold securities is used to compute realized gains and losses. Interest on securities, including amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts using the effective interest method over the period to maturity, is included in interest income.
Non-marketable equity securities include stock held for membership and regulatory purposes, such as FHLB stock and FRB stock. These securities are accounted for at cost, evaluated for impairment, and are included in other securities. Other securities also include mutual funds and other marketable equity securities. These securities are carried at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in other noninterest income.
Loans and Leases — Loans for which Huntington has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future, or until maturity or payoff, except loans for which the fair value option has been elected, are carried at the principal amount outstanding, net of charge-offs, unamortized deferred loan origination fees and costs, premiums and discounts, and unearned income. Direct financing leases are reported at the aggregate of lease payments receivable and estimated residual values, net of unearned and deferred income, and any initial direct costs incurred to originate these leases. Renewal options for leases are at the option of the lessee, and are typically not included in the measurement of the lease receivable as they are not considered reasonably certain of exercise. Purchase options are typically at fair value, and as such those options are not considered in the measurement of lease receivables or in lease classification. Interest income is accrued as earned using the interest method. Huntington defers the fees it receives from the origination of loans and leases, as well as the direct costs of those activities. Huntington also acquires loans at premiums and/or discounts to their contractual values. Huntington amortizes loan discounts, premiums, and net loan origination fees and costs over the contractual lives of the related loans using the effective interest method.
Troubled debt restructurings are loans for which the original contractual terms have been modified to provide a concession to a borrower experiencing financial difficulties. Loan modifications are considered TDRs when the concessions provided are not available to the borrower through either normal channels or other sources. However, not all loan modifications are TDRs. Modifications resulting in troubled debt restructurings may include changes to one or more terms of the loan, including but not limited to, a change in interest rate, an extension of the repayment period, a reduction in payment amount, and partial forgiveness or deferment of principal or accrued interest.
Impairment of the residual values of direct financing leases is evaluated quarterly, with impairment arising if the expected fair value is less than the carrying amount. Huntington assesses net investments in leases (including residual values) for impairment and recognizes impairment losses in accordance with the impairment guidance for financial instruments. As such, net investments in leases may be reduced by an allowance for credit losses, with changes recognized as provision expense.
For leased equipment, the residual component of a direct financing lease represents the estimated fair value of the leased equipment at the end of the lease term. Huntington uses industry data, historical experience, and independent appraisals to establish these residual value estimates. Additional information regarding product life cycle, product upgrades, as well as insight into competing products are obtained through relationships with industry contacts and are factored into residual value estimates where applicable. Upon expiration of a lease, residual assets are remarketed, resulting in an extension of the lease by the lessee, a lease to a new customer, or purchase of the residual asset by the lessee or another party. Huntington also purchases insurance guaranteeing the value of certain residual assets.
Loans Held for Sale — Loans in which Huntington does not have the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future are classified as loans held for sale. Loans held for sale are carried at (a) the lower of cost or fair value less costs to sell, or (b) fair value where the fair value option is elected. The fair value option is generally elected for mortgage loans originated with the intent to sell. The fair value of such loans is estimated based on the inputs that include prices of mortgage backed securities adjusted for other variables such as, interest rates, expected credit defaults and market discount rates. The adjusted value reflects the price we expect to receive from the sale of such loans.
Nonaccrual and Past Due Loans — Loans are considered past due when the contractual amounts due with respect to principal and interest are not received within 30 days of the contractual due date.
Any loan in any portfolio may be placed on nonaccrual status prior to the policies described below when collection of principal or interest is in doubt. When a borrower with debt is discharged in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy and the debt is not reaffirmed by the borrower, the loan is determined to be collateral dependent and placed on nonaccrual status, unless there is a co-borrower or the repayment is likely to occur based on objective evidence.
All classes within the commercial loan and lease portfolio are placed on nonaccrual status at 90-days past due. First-lien home equity loans are placed on nonaccrual status at 150-days past due. Junior-lien home equity loans are placed on nonaccrual status at the earlier of 120-days past due or when the related first-lien loan has been identified as nonaccrual. Automobile, RV and marine and other consumer loans are generally fully charged-off at 120-days past due, and if not fully charged-off are placed on non-accrual. Residential mortgage loans are placed on nonaccrual status at 150-days past due, with the exception of residential mortgages guaranteed by government agencies which continue to accrue interest at the rate guaranteed by the government agency.
For all classes within all loan portfolios, when a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, any accrued interest is reversed and charged against interest income.
For all classes within all loan portfolios, cash receipts on NALs are applied against principal until the loan or lease has been collected in full, including the charged-off portion, after which time any additional cash receipts are recognized as interest income. However, for secured non-reaffirmed debt in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, payments are applied to principal and interest when the borrower has demonstrated a capacity to continue payment of the debt and collection of the debt is reasonably assured. For unsecured non-reaffirmed debt in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy where the carrying value has been fully charged-off, payments are recorded as loan recoveries.
Within the commercial loan and lease portfolio, the determination of a borrower’s ability to make the required principal and interest payments is based on an examination of the borrower’s current financial statements, industry, management capabilities, and other qualitative measures. For all classes within the consumer loan portfolio, the determination of a borrower’s ability to make the required principal and interest payments is based on multiple factors, including number of days past due and, in some instances, an evaluation of the borrower’s financial condition. When, in management’s judgment, the borrower’s ability to make required principal and interest payments resumes and collectability is no longer in doubt, supported by sustained repayment history, the loan is returned to accrual status. For loans that are returned to accrual status, cash receipts are applied according to the contractual terms of the loan.
Collateral-dependent Loans — Certain commercial and consumer loans for which repayment is expected to be provided substantially through the operation or sale of the loan collateral are considered to be collateral-dependent. Commercial collateral-dependent loans are generally secured by business assets and/or commercial real estate. Consumer collateral-dependent loans are primarily secured by residential real estate or automobiles.
Allowance for Credit Losses — Huntington maintains an ACL on its loan and lease portfolio, held-to-maturity securities as well as on available-for-sale securities. The ACL on loan and lease portfolio and held-to-maturity securities are provided through an expected loss methodology referred to as current expected credit loss (“CECL”) methodology. The ACL on AFS securities is provided when a credit loss is deemed to have occurred for securities which Huntington does not intend to sell or is not required to sell. The CECL methodology also applies to credit exposures on off-balance-sheet loan commitments, financial guarantees not accounted for as insurance, including standby letters of credit, and other similar instruments not recognized as derivative financial instruments.
Loans - The ACL is deducted from the amortized cost basis of a financial asset or a group of financial assets so that the balance sheet reflects the net amount Huntington expects to collect. Amortized cost is the principal balance outstanding, net of purchase premiums and discounts, fair value hedge accounting adjustments, and deferred fees and costs. Subsequent changes (favorable and unfavorable) in expected credit losses are recognized immediately in net income as a credit loss expense or a reversal of credit loss expense. Management estimates the allowance by projecting probability-of-default, loss-given-default and exposure-at-default depending on loan risk characteristics and economic parameters for each month of the remaining contractual term. Commercial loan risk characteristics include but are not limited to risk ratings, industry type and maturity type. Consumer loan risk characteristics include but are not limited to FICO scores, LTV and loan vintages. The economic parameters are developed using available information relating to past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Huntington’s reasonable and supportable forecast period reverts to a historical norm based on inputs within approximately two to three years. The reversion period is dependent on the state of the economy at the beginning of the forecast. Historical credit experience provides the basis for the estimation of expected credit losses, with adjustments made for differences in current loan-specific risk characteristics such as differences in underwriting standards, portfolio mix, delinquency levels and terms, as well as for changes in the micro- and macroeconomic environments. The contractual terms of financial assets are adjusted for expected prepayments and any extensions outside of Huntington’s control.
The ACL is measured on a collective basis when similar risk characteristics exist. Loans that are determined to have unique risk characteristics are evaluated on an individual basis by management. If a loan is determined to be collateral dependent or meets the criteria to apply the collateral dependent practical expedient, expected credit losses are determined based on the fair value of the collateral at the reporting date, less costs to sell as appropriate. Loans with unique risk characteristics that are not subject to collateral dependent accounting, are assessed using a discounted cash flows methodology.
Management believes the products within each of the entity’s portfolio classes exhibit similar risk characteristics. Huntington has identified its portfolio classes as disclosed in Note 5 - “Loans and Leases”.
In addition to the transactional reserve described above, Huntington also maintains a general reserve that consists of various risk-profile reserve components. The risk-profile components consider items unique to Huntington’s structure, policies, processes and portfolio composition, as well as qualitative measurements and assessments of the loan portfolios including, but not limited to, economic uncertainty, concentrations, portfolio composition, industry comparisons and internal review functions.
Huntington has elected to exclude accrued interest receivable from the measurement of its ACL given the well-defined non-accrual policies in place for all loan portfolios which results in timely reversal of outstanding interest through interest income. For certain loans on active deferral related to COVID-19, the collection of interest may be delayed for an extended period of time. The accrued interest on these active deferral loans is contemplated in establishing the ACL.
The estimate for the off-balance sheet exposures, the AULC, is determined using the same procedures and methodologies as used for the loan and lease portfolio supplemented by the information related to future draws and related credit loss expectations. The AULC is recorded in other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Prior to the implementation of ASU 2016-13 (CECL) on January 1, 2020, the allowance for credit losses was subject to the guidance included in ASC 310 and ASC 450. Under the guidance, the bank was required to use an incurred loss methodology to estimate credit losses that were estimated to be incurred in the loan portfolio and that could ultimately materialize into confirmed losses in the form of charge-offs. The incurred loss methodology was a backward-looking approach to loss recognition and based on the concept of a triggering event having taken place, causing a loss to be inherent within the portfolio. This methodology under ASC 450 was predicated on a loss emergence period that was applied at a portfolio level. Loss emergence periods, PD’s and LGD’s were all based on historical loss experience within the loan portfolios. Consideration of forward looking macro-economic expectations was not permitted under this allowance methodology. Additionally, loans that were identified as impaired under the definition of ASC 310, were required to be assessed on an individual basis. The allowance for credit losses and resulting provision expense levels for comparative periods presented in this document were estimated in accordance with these requirements.
HTM Securities - The allowance for held-to-maturity debt securities is estimated using a CECL methodology. Any expected credit loss is provided through the allowance for credit loss on HTM securities and is deducted from the amortized cost basis of the security so that the balance sheet reflects the net amount Huntington expects to collect. Nearly all of Huntington’s HTM debt securities are issued by U.S. government entities and agencies. These securities are either explicitly or implicitly guaranteed by the U.S. government, are highly rated by major rating agencies, and have a long history of no credit losses. Accordingly, there is a zero credit loss expectation on these securities.
AFS Securities - Huntington evaluates its available-for-sale investment securities portfolio on a quarterly basis for indicators of impairment. Huntington assesses whether an impairment has occurred when the fair value of a debt security is less than the amortized cost at the balance sheet date. Management reviews the amount of unrealized loss, the credit rating history, market trends of similar security classes, time remaining to maturity, and the source of both interest and principal payments to identify securities which could potentially be impaired. For those debt securities that Huntington intends to sell or is more likely than not required to sell, before the recovery of their amortized cost basis, the difference between fair value and amortized cost is considered to be impaired and is recognized in noninterest income. For those debt securities that Huntington does not intend to sell or is not more likely than not required to sell, prior to expected recovery of amortized cost basis, the credit portion of the impairment is recognized through an allowance in noninterest income while the noncredit portion is recognized in OCI. In determining the credit portion, Huntington uses a discounted cash flow analysis, which includes evaluating the timing and amount of the expected cash flows. Non-credit-related impairment results from other factors, including increased liquidity spreads and higher interest rates.
Charge-off of Uncollectible Loans — Any loan in any portfolio may be charged-off prior to the policies described below if a loss confirming event has occurred. Loss confirming events include, but are not limited to, bankruptcy (unsecured), continued delinquency, foreclosure, or receipt of an asset valuation indicating a collateral deficiency and that asset is the sole source of repayment. Additionally, discharged, collateral dependent non-reaffirmed debt in Chapter 7 bankruptcy filings will result in a charge-off to estimated collateral value, less anticipated selling costs, unless the repayment is likely to occur based on objective evidence.
Commercial loans and leases are generally either charged-off or written down to net realizable value at 90-days past due. Automobile, RV and marine and other consumer loans are generally charged-off at 120-days past due. First-lien and junior-lien home equity loans are charged-off to the estimated fair value of the collateral, less anticipated selling costs, at 150-days past due and 120-days past due, respectively. Residential mortgages are charged-off to the estimated fair value of the collateral at 150-days past due.
Collateral — Huntington pledges assets as collateral as required for various transactions including security repurchase agreements, public deposits, loan notes, derivative financial instruments, short-term borrowings and long-term borrowings. Assets that have been pledged as collateral, including those that can be sold or repledged by the secured party, continue to be reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Huntington also accepts collateral, primarily as part of various transactions including derivative instruments and security resale agreements. Collateral received is excluded from the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The market value of collateral accepted or pledged is regularly monitored and additional collateral is obtained or provided as necessary to ensure appropriate collateral coverage in these transactions.
Premises and Equipment — Premises and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is computed principally by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. Buildings and building improvements are depreciated over an average of 30 to 40 years and 10 to 30 years, respectively. Land improvements and furniture and fixtures are depreciated over an average of 5 to 20 years, while equipment is depreciated over a range of 3 to 10 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the asset’s useful life or the lease term, including any renewal periods for which renewal is reasonably assured. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred, while improvements that extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized and depreciated over the remaining useful life. Amounts in premises and equipment may include items classified as held-for-sale, which are carried at lower of cost or fair value, less costs to sell. Premises and equipment are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable.
Mortgage Servicing Rights — Huntington recognizes the rights to service mortgage loans as an asset when servicing is contractually separated from the underlying mortgage loans by sale or securitization of the loans with servicing rights retained or when purchased. MSRs are included in servicing rights and other intangible assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. All MSR assets are recorded using the fair value method. Any change in the fair value of MSRs during the period is recorded in mortgage banking income.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets — Under the acquisition method of accounting, the net assets of entities acquired by Huntington are recorded at their estimated fair value at the date of acquisition. The excess cost of consideration paid over the fair value of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Other intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized either on an accelerated or straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Goodwill is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis at October 1st of each year or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Other intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable.
Operating Leases (Lessee) — Huntington has elected not to include non-lease components in the measurement of right-of-use assets, and as such allocates the costs attributable to such components, where those costs are not separately identifiable, via per-square-foot costing analysis developed by the entity for owned and leased spaces. Huntington uses a portfolio approach to develop discount rates as its lease portfolio is comprised of substantially all branch space and office space used in the entity’s operations. That rate, an input used in the measurement of the entity’s right-of-use assets, leverages an incremental borrowing rate of appropriate tenor and collateralization.
Derivative Financial Instruments — A variety of derivative financial instruments, principally interest rate swaps, caps, floors, and collars, are used in asset and liability management activities to protect against the risk of adverse price or interest rate movements. These instruments provide flexibility in adjusting Huntington’s sensitivity to changes in interest rates without exposure to loss of principal and higher funding requirements.
Huntington also uses derivatives, principally loan sale commitments, in hedging its mortgage loan interest rate lock commitments and its mortgage loans held for sale. Mortgage loan sale commitments and the related interest rate lock commitments are carried at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheets with changes in fair value reflected in mortgage banking income. Huntington also uses certain derivative financial instruments to offset changes in value of its MSRs. These derivatives consist primarily of forward interest rate agreements and forward mortgage contracts. The derivative instruments used are not designated as qualifying hedges. Accordingly, such derivatives are recorded at fair value with changes in fair value reflected in mortgage banking income.
Derivative financial instruments are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as either an asset or a liability (in other assets and other liabilities, respectively) and measured at fair value. Accounting for changes in fair value of derivatives depends on whether the derivative is designated and qualifies in a hedging relationship. At inception a derivative contract can be designated as:
•a qualifying hedge of the fair value of a recognized asset or liability or of an unrecognized firm commitment (fair value hedge);
•a qualifying hedge of the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a recognized asset, liability or forecasted transaction (cash flow hedge); or
•a qualifying hedge of Huntington’s investment in non-U.S. dollar functional currency entities (net investment hedge).
Changes in the fair value of a derivative that has been designated and qualifies as a fair value hedge, along with the changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that is attributable to the hedged risk, are recorded in current period earnings. Changes in the fair value of a derivative that has been designated and qualifies as a cash flow hedge are recorded in other comprehensive income, net of income taxes, and reclassified into earnings in the period during which the hedged item affects earnings. Changes in the fair value of derivatives that have been designated as net investment hedges are recorded in other comprehensive income, net of income taxes, and reclassified into earnings during the period the foreign entity is substantially liquidated or other elements of the currency translation adjustment are reclassified into earnings. Changes in the fair value of derivatives held for trading purposes or which do not qualify for hedge accounting are reported in current period earnings.
For those derivatives to which hedge accounting is applied, Huntington formally documents the hedging relationship and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. This documentation identifies the hedging instrument, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, and, unless the hedge meets all of the criteria to assume there is no ineffectiveness, the method that will be used to assess the effectiveness of the hedging instrument. Huntington typically assesses effectiveness using statistical regression at inception and on an ongoing basis.
Hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively when:
•the derivative is no longer effective or expected to be effective in offsetting changes in the fair value, cash flows or changes in net investment of a hedged item (including firm commitments or forecasted transactions);
•the derivative expires, is sold, terminated, or exercised;
•the forecasted transaction is no longer probable of occurring by the end of the originally specified time period;
•the hedged firm commitment no longer meets the definition of a firm commitment; or
•the designation of the derivative as a hedging instrument is removed.
When hedge accounting is discontinued and the derivative no longer qualifies as an effective fair value, cash flow or net investment hedge, the derivative continues to be carried on the balance sheet at fair value and changes in fair value will be recorded in current period earnings unless re-designated.
In the case of a discontinued fair value hedge of a recognized asset or liability, as long as the hedged item continues to exist on the balance sheet, the hedged item will no longer be adjusted for changes in fair value. The basis adjustment that had previously been recorded to the hedged item during the period from the hedge designation date to the hedge discontinuation date is recognized as an adjustment to the yield of the hedged item over the remaining life of the hedged item.
In the case of a discontinued cash flow hedge of a forecasted transaction, as long as the forecasted transaction remains probable the balance applicable to the discontinued hedging relationship will be recognized in earnings over the periods where the hedged cash flows are recorded in earnings. If the forecasted transaction is not expected to occur, any amounts recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income are immediately reclassified to current period earnings.
In the case of a discontinued net investment hedge as long as Huntington holds the net investment in the entity, the change in fair value will no longer be recorded in other comprehensive income. The cumulative balance recorded in accumulated comprehensive income will be recognized in earnings when the entity is substantially liquidated.
Like other financial instruments, derivatives contain an element of credit risk, which is the possibility that Huntington will incur a loss because the counterparty fails to meet its contractual obligations. Notional values of interest rate swaps and other off-balance sheet financial instruments significantly exceed the credit risk associated with these instruments and represent contractual balances on which calculations of amounts to be exchanged are based. Credit exposure is limited to the sum of the aggregate fair value of positions that have become favorable to Huntington, including any accrued interest receivable due from counterparties. Potential credit losses are mitigated by derivatives through central clearing parties, careful evaluation of counterparty credit standing, selection of counterparties from a limited group of high quality institutions, collateral agreements, and other contract provisions. Huntington considers the value of collateral held and collateral provided in determining the net carrying value of derivatives.
Huntington offsets the fair value amounts recognized for derivative instruments and the fair value for the right to reclaim cash collateral or the obligation to return cash collateral arising from derivative instruments recognized at fair value executed with the same counterparty under a master netting arrangement.
Fair Value Measurements — The Company records or discloses certain of its assets and liabilities at fair value. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Fair value measurements are classified within one of three levels in a valuation hierarchy based upon the observability of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. The three levels are defined as follows:
•Level 1 – inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
•Level 2 – inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
•Level 3 – inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.
A financial instrument’s categorization within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
Bank Owned Life Insurance — Huntington’s bank owned life insurance policies are recorded at their cash surrender value. Huntington recognizes tax-exempt income from the periodic increases in the cash surrender value of these policies and from death benefits. A portion of the cash surrender value is supported by holdings in separate accounts. Book value protection for the separate accounts is provided by the insurance carriers and a highly rated major bank.
Transfers of Financial Assets and Securitizations — Transfers of financial assets in which we have surrendered control over the transferred assets are accounted for as sales. In assessing whether control has been surrendered, Huntington considers whether the transferee would be a consolidated affiliate, the existence and extent of any continuing involvement in the transferred financial assets, and the impact of all arrangements or agreements made contemporaneously with, or in contemplation of, the transfer, even if they were not entered into at the time of transfer. Control is generally considered to have been surrendered when (i) the transferred assets have been legally isolated from Huntington or any of its consolidated affiliates, even in bankruptcy or other receivership, (ii) the transferee (or, if the transferee is an entity whose sole purpose is to engage in securitization or asset-backed financing that is constrained from pledging or exchanging the assets it receives, each third-party holder of its beneficial interests) has the right to pledge or exchange the assets (or beneficial interests) it received without any constraints that provide more than a trivial benefit to Huntington, and (iii) neither Huntington nor its consolidated affiliates and agents have (a) both the right and obligation under any agreement to repurchase or redeem the transferred assets before their maturity, (b) the unilateral ability to cause the holder to return specific financial assets that also provides Huntington with a more-than-trivial benefit (other than through a cleanup call) or (c) an agreement that permits the transferee to require Huntington to repurchase the transferred assets at a price so favorable that it is probable that it will require Huntington to repurchase them.
If the sale criteria are met, the transferred financial assets are removed from the balance sheet and a gain or loss on sale is recognized. If the sale criteria are not met, the transfer is recorded as a secured borrowing in which the assets remain on the balance sheet and the proceeds from the transaction are recognized as a liability. For the majority of financial asset transfers, it is clear whether or not Huntington has surrendered control. For other transfers, such as in the case of complex transactions or where Huntington have continuing involvement, we generally obtain a legal opinion as to whether the transfer results in a true sale by law.
Gains and losses on the loans and leases sold and servicing rights associated with loan and lease sales are determined when the related loans or leases are sold to either a securitization trust or third-party. For loan or lease sales with servicing retained, a servicing asset is recorded at fair value for the right to service the loans sold.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits — Huntington recognizes the funded status of the postretirement benefit plans on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Net postretirement benefit cost charged to current earnings related to these plans is predominantly based on various actuarial assumptions regarding expected future experience.
Certain employees are participants in various defined contribution and other non-qualified supplemental retirement plans. Contributions to defined contribution plans are charged to current earnings.
In addition, Huntington maintains a 401(k) plan covering substantially all employees. Employer contributions to the plan are charged to current earnings.
Noninterest Income — Huntington recognizes revenue when the performance obligations related to the transfer of goods or services under the terms of a contract are satisfied. Some obligations are satisfied at a point in time while others are satisfied over a period of time. Revenue is recognized as the amount of consideration to which Huntington expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer. When consideration includes a variable component, the amount of consideration attributable to variability is included in the transaction price only to the extent it is probable that significant revenue recognized will not be reversed when uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. Generally, the variability relating to the consideration is explicitly stated in the contracts, but may also arise from Huntington’s customer business practices, for example, waiving certain fees related to customer’s deposit accounts such as NSF fees. Huntington’s contracts generally do not contain terms that require significant judgement to determine the variability impacting the transaction price.
Revenue is segregated based on the nature of product and services offered as part of contractual arrangements. Revenue from contracts with customers is broadly segregated as follows:
•Service charges on deposit accounts include fees and other charges Huntington receives to provide various services, including but not limited to, maintaining an account with a customer, providing overdraft services, wire transfer, transferring funds, and accepting and executing stop-payment orders. The consideration includes both fixed (e.g., account maintenance fee) and transaction fees (e.g., wire-transfer fee). The fixed fee is recognized over a period of time while the transaction fee is recognized when a specific service (e.g., execution of wire-transfer) is rendered to the customer. Huntington may, from time to time, waive certain fees (e.g., NSF fee) for customers but generally does not reduce the transaction price to reflect variability for future reversals due to the insignificance of the amounts. Waiver of fees reduces the revenue in the period the waiver is granted to the customer.
•Card and payment processing income includes interchange fees earned on debit cards and credit cards. All other fees (e.g., annual fees), and interest income are recognized in accordance with ASC 310. Huntington recognizes interchange fees for services performed related to authorization and settlement of a cardholder’s transaction with a merchant. Revenue is recognized when a cardholder’s transaction is approved and settled.
Certain volume or transaction based interchange expenses (net of rebates) paid to the payment network reduce the interchange revenue and are presented net on the income statement. Similarly, rewards payable under a reward program to cardholders are recognized as a reduction of the transaction price and are presented net against the interchange revenue.
•Trust and investment management services includes fee income generated from personal, corporate and institutional customers. Huntington also provides investment management services, cash management services and tax reporting to customers. Services are rendered over a period of time, over which revenue is recognized. Huntington may also recognize revenue from referring a customer to outside third-parties including mutual fund companies that pay distribution (12b-1) fees and other expenses. 12b-1 fees are received upon initially placing an account holder’s funds with a mutual fund company as well as in the future periods as long as the account holder (i.e., the fund investor), remains invested in the fund. The transaction price includes a variable consideration which is considered constrained as it is not probable that a significant revenue reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. Accordingly, those fees are recognized as revenue when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved, that is, initial fees are recognized in the initial period while the future fees are recognized in future periods.
•Insurance income includes agency commissions that are recognized when Huntington sells insurance policies to customers. Huntington is also entitled to renewal commissions and, in some cases, profit sharing which are recognized in subsequent periods. The initial commission is recognized when the insurance policy is sold to a customer. Renewal commission is variable consideration and is recognized in subsequent periods when the uncertainty around variable consideration is subsequently resolved (i.e., when customer renews the policy). Profit sharing is also variable consideration that is not recognized until the variability surrounding realization of revenue is resolved (i.e., Huntington has reached a minimum volume of sales). Another source of variability is the ability of the policy holder to cancel the policy anytime. In such cases, Huntington may be required, under the terms of the contract, to return part of the commission received. A policy cancellation reserve is established for such expected cancellations.
•Other noninterest income includes a variety of other revenue streams including capital markets revenue, leasing revenue, miscellaneous consumer fees and marketing allowance revenue. Revenue is recognized when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. Inherent variability in the transaction price is not recognized until the uncertainty affecting the variability is resolved.
Control is transferred to a customer either at a point in time or over time. A performance obligation is deemed satisfied when the control over goods or services is transferred to the customer. To determine when control is transferred at a point in time, Huntington considers indicators, including but not limited to the right to payment for the asset, transfer of significant risk and rewards of ownership of the asset and acceptance of the asset by the customer.
Revenue is recorded in the business segment responsible for the related product or service. Fee sharing arrangements exist to allocate portions of such revenue to other business segments involved in selling to, or providing service to, customers. Business segment results are determined based upon management’s reporting system, which assigns balance sheet and income statement items to each of the business segments. The process is designed around Huntington’s organizational and management structure and, accordingly, the results derived are not necessarily comparable with similar information published by other financial institutions.
Income Taxes — Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Accordingly, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future book and tax consequences attributable to temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined using enacted tax rates expected to apply in the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income at the time of enactment of such change in tax rates.
Any interest or penalties due for payment of income taxes are included in the provision for income taxes. To the extent we do not consider it more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will be recovered, a valuation allowance is recorded. All positive and negative evidence is reviewed when determining how much of a valuation allowance is recognized on a quarterly basis. In determining the requirements for a valuation allowance, sources of possible taxable income are evaluated including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards, taxable income in appropriate carryback years, and tax-planning strategies. Huntington applies a more likely than not recognition threshold for all tax uncertainties.
Share-Based Compensation — Huntington uses the fair value based method of accounting for awards of HBAN stock granted to employees under various share-based compensation plans. Share-based compensation costs are recognized prospectively for all new awards granted under these plans. Compensation expense relating to stock options is calculated using a methodology that is based on the underlying assumptions of the Black-Scholes option pricing model and is charged to expense over the requisite service period (e.g., vesting period) taking into account retirement eligibility . Compensation expense relating to restricted stock awards is based upon the fair value of the awards on the date of grant and is charged to earnings over the requisite service period (e.g., vesting period) taking into account the retirement eligibility of the award.
Stock Repurchases — Acquisitions of Huntington stock are recorded at cost.Segment Results — Accounting policies for the business segments are the same as those used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements with respect to activities specifically attributable to each business segment. However, the preparation of business segment results requires management to establish methodologies to allocate funding costs and benefits, expenses, and other financial elements to each business segment, which are described in Note 25 - “Segment Reporting”.