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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
Commission File Number 1-34073 
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
huntingtonlogo.jpg
Huntington Bancshares Incorporated
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Maryland
31-0724920
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
41 South High Street
Columbus,
Ohio
43287
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (614480-2265
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of class
Trading
Symbol(s)
Name of exchange on which registered
Depositary Shares (each representing a 1/40th interest in a share of 4.500% Series H Non-Cumulative, perpetual preferred stock)HBANPNASDAQ
Depositary Shares (each representing a 1/1000th interest in a share of 5.70% Series I Non-Cumulative, perpetual preferred stock)HBANMNASDAQ
Depositary Shares (each representing a 1/40th interest in a share of 6.875% Series J Non-Cumulative, perpetual preferred stock)
HBANL
NASDAQ
Common Stock—Par Value $0.01 per ShareHBANNASDAQ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Exchange Act. x    Yes  ¨    No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. ¨    Yes  x    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. x    Yes  ¨    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). x    Yes  ¨    No



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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerxAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act)
      Yes  x    No
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, determined by using a per share closing price of $10.78, as quoted by Nasdaq on that date, was $15,337,338,365. As of January 31, 2024, there were 1,448,345,863 shares of common stock with a par value of $0.01 outstanding.
Documents Incorporated By Reference
Part III of this Form 10-K incorporates by reference certain information from the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Shareholders’ Meeting.



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HUNTINGTON BANCSHARES INCORPORATED
INDEX
Part I.
Part II.
Part III.
Part IV.


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Glossary of Acronyms and Terms
The following listing provides a comprehensive reference of common acronyms and terms used throughout the document:
ACLAllowance for Credit Losses
AFSAvailable-for-Sale
ALCOAsset-Liability Management Committee
ALLLAllowance for Loan and Lease Losses
AML
Anti-Money Laundering
AOCI
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
ATMAutomated Teller Machine
AULCAllowance for Unfunded Lending Commitments
Bank Secrecy ActFinancial Recordkeeping and Reporting of Currency and Foreign Transactions Act of 1970
Basel IIIRefers to the final rule issued by the Federal Reserve and OCC and published in the Federal Register on October 11, 2013
BHCBank Holding Company
BHC Act
Bank Holding Company Act of 1956
BTFP
Bank Term Funding Program
Capstone PartnersCapstone Enterprises LLC
C&ICommercial and Industrial
CCARComprehensive Capital Analysis and Review
CCB
Capital Conservation Buffer
CCPA
California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020
CDsCertificates of Deposit
CDS
Credit Default Swap
CECLCurrent Expected Credit Losses
CEO
Chief Executive Officer
CET1
Common Equity Tier 1 on a Basel III basis
CFO
Chief Financial Officer
CFPBBureau of Consumer Financial Protection
CISA
Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act
CMOCollateralized Mortgage Obligations
CODM
Chief Operating Decision Maker
COVID-19Coronavirus Disease 2019
CDP
Carbon Disclosure Project
CRA
Community Reinvestment Act
CRECommercial Real Estate
CRO
Chief Risk Officer
CRT
Credit Risk Transfer
DEIDiversity, Equity, and Inclusion
DIFDeposit Insurance Fund
Dodd-Frank ActDodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
EADExposure at Default
Economic Growth ActEconomic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act
4 Huntington Bancshares Incorporated

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ELTExecutive Leadership Team
EOP
End of Period
EPSEarnings Per Share
ERM
Enterprise Risk Management
ESGEnvironmental, Social, and Governance
EVEEconomic Value of Equity
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FCRAFair Credit Reporting Act
FDIAFederal Deposit Insurance Act
FDICFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal ReserveBoard of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
FHCFinancial Holding Company
FHLBFederal Home Loan Bank
FICOFair Isaac Corporation
FinCENFinancial Crimes Enforcement Network
FINRA
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.
FRB
Federal Reserve Bank
FRGFinancial Recovery Group
FTE
Fully-Taxable Equivalent
FTPFunds Transfer Pricing
FVO Fair Value Option
GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States of America
GDPGross Domestic Product
GLBAGramm-Leach-Bliley Act
HICHuntington Investment Company
HMDAHome Mortgage Disclosure Act
HTMHeld-to-Maturity
IRSInternal Revenue Service
Last-of-LayerLast-of-layer is a fair value hedge of the interest rate risk of a portfolio of similar prepayable assets whereby the last dollar amount within the portfolio of assets is identified as the hedged item
LCRLiquidity Coverage Ratio
LFI Rating SystemLarge Financial Institution Rating System
LGDLoss Given Default
LIBORLondon Interbank Offered Rate
LIHTCLow Income Housing Tax Credit
LTVLoan-to-Value
MBSMortgage-Backed Securities
MD&AManagement’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
MSAMetropolitan Statistical Area
MSRMortgage Servicing Right
NAICSNorth American Industry Classification System
NALsNonaccrual Loans
NCONet Charge-off
NIINet Interest Income
NIMNet Interest Margin
NMNot Meaningful
NPAsNonperforming Assets
2023 Form 10-K 5

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OCCOffice of the Comptroller of the Currency
OCIOther Comprehensive Income (Loss)
OCROptimal Customer Relationship
OFACOffice of Foreign Assets Control
OLEMOther Loans Especially Mentioned
OREOOther Real Estate Owned
Patriot ActUniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001
PCAOBPublic Company Accounting Oversight Board
PCDPurchased Credit Deteriorated
PDProbability of Default
PlanHuntington Bancshares Retirement Plan
PPPPaycheck Protection Program
Problem LoansIncludes nonaccrual loans and leases, accruing loans and leases past due 90 days or more, troubled debt restructured loans, and criticized commercial loans
RBHPCGRegional Banking and The Huntington Private Client Group
REITReal Estate Investment Trust
Riegle-Neal ActThe Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994
ROC
Risk Oversight Committee
RPS
Retirement Plan Services
RV
Recreational vehicle
RWARisk-Weighted Assets
SBASmall Business Administration
SCBStress Capital Buffer
SECSecurities and Exchange Commission
SOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
Tailoring Rules
Refers to the Capital and Liquidity Tailoring Rule, which refers to changes to applicability thresholds for regulatory and capital and liquidity requirements, issued by the OCC, the Federal Reserve, and the FDIC, and the EPS Tailoring Rule, which refers to the Prudential Standards for Large Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding, issued by the Federal Reserve
TBA
To Be Announced
TCFTCF Financial Corporation
TCFDTask Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures
TDRTroubled Debt Restructuring
ToranaDigital Payments Torana, Inc.
U.S. TreasuryU.S. Department of the Treasury
VIEVariable Interest Entity
XBRLeXtensible Business Reporting Language
6 Huntington Bancshares Incorporated

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Huntington Bancshares Incorporated
PART I
When we refer to “Huntington,” “we,” “our,” “us,” and “the Company” in this report, we mean Huntington Bancshares Incorporated and our consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context indicates that we refer only to the parent company, Huntington Bancshares Incorporated. When we refer to the “Bank” in this report, we mean our only bank subsidiary, The Huntington National Bank, and its subsidiaries.
Item 1: Business
General Business Description
We are a multi-state diversified regional bank holding company organized under Maryland law in 1966 and headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. Through the Bank, we are committed to making people’s lives better, helping businesses thrive, and strengthening the communities we serve, and we have been servicing the financial needs of our customers since 1866. Through our subsidiaries, we provide full-service commercial and consumer deposit, lending, and other banking services. These include, but are not limited to, payments, mortgage banking, automobile, recreational vehicle and marine financing, investment banking, capital markets, advisory, equipment financing, distribution finance, investment management, trust, brokerage, insurance, and other financial products and services. As of December 31, 2023, our 999 full-service branches and private client group offices are primarily located in Ohio, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Select financial services and other activities are also conducted in other states.
Business Segments
Our business segments are based on our internally-aligned segment leadership structure, which is how we monitor results and assess performance. For each business segment, we expect the combination of our business model, investment in products and capabilities, and exceptional service to provide a competitive advantage that supports revenue and earnings growth. Our business model emphasizes the delivery of a complete set of banking products and services offered by larger banks but distinguished by local delivery and customer service.
A key strategic emphasis has been for our business segments to operate in cooperation to provide products and services to our customers and to build stronger and more profitable relationships using our OCR sales and service process, which aligns to our vision to be the leading people-first, digitally powered bank. The objectives of OCR are to:
Use a consultative and advisory sales approach to provide solutions that are specific to each customer;
Leverage each business segment in terms of its products and expertise to benefit customers; and
Develop prospects who may want to have multiple products and services as part of their relationship with us.
To align with our strategic priorities, during the second quarter of 2023, we completed an organizational realignment and now report on two business segments: Consumer & Regional Banking and Commercial Banking. The organizational realignment primarily involved consolidating our previously reported Consumer and Business Banking, Vehicle Finance and RBHPCG, into one new business segment called Consumer & Regional Banking.
Following is a description of our business segments and the Treasury / Other function:
Consumer & Regional Banking: The Consumer & Regional Banking segment provides a wide array of financial products and services to consumer and business customers including, but not limited to, deposits, lending, payments, mortgage banking, dealer financing, investment management, trust, brokerage, insurance, and other financial products and services. We serve our customers through our network of channels, including branches and ATMs, online and mobile banking, and through our customer call centers.
We have a “Fair Play” banking philosophy: providing differentiated products and services, built on a strong foundation of customer friendly products and advocacy. Our brand resonates with consumers and businesses, helping us acquire new customers and deepen relationships with current customers. Our Fair Play banking suite of products includes 24-Hour Grace®, Asterisk-Free Checking®, Money Scout®, $50 Safety Zone®, Standby Cash®, Early Pay, Instant Access, Savings Goal Getter® and Huntington Heads Up®.
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Consumer & Regional Banking offers a comprehensive set of digitally powered consumer and business financial solutions to Consumer Lending, Regional Banking, Branch Banking, and Wealth Management customers.
Consumer Lending provides direct and indirect consumer loans, as well as dealer finance loans and deposits. The direct consumer loan products, including mortgage and home equity, are originated through branch, online, and third-party channels. Indirect consumer loans are originated through deep relationships with dealerships to finance consumer purchases of automobiles, recreational vehicles, marine craft, and powersports. We also provide dealer finance loans (including floorplan loans), deposits, and other financial products to these dealerships and their owners.
Regional Banking, along with our business and specialty banking offerings, is a dynamic part of our business and we are committed to being the bank of choice for businesses in our markets. Regional Banking is defined as serving small to mid-sized businesses. Beyond conventional lending solutions, Huntington offers access to capital markets, practice finance, and SBA lending capabilities. We are the #1 SBA lender in the nation by loan volume as of federal fiscal year end September 30, 2023. In addition, our payments business provides credit and debit cards and treasury management services to our customers. Huntington continues to develop products and services that are designed specifically to meet the needs of business customers and looks for ways to help companies find solutions to their financing needs.
Branch Banking provides a full range of financial products and services to consumer and business customers through our extensive branch and ATM network. The branch network offers full-service branches that are primarily located in Ohio, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.
Wealth Management has a comprehensive product offering, including private banking, wealth management and legacy planning through investment and portfolio management, fiduciary administration and trust services, institutional custody services, and full-service retail brokerage investments.
Commercial Banking: The Commercial Banking segment provides expertise through bankers, capabilities, and digital channels, and includes a comprehensive set of product offerings. Our target clients span from mid-market to large corporates across a national footprint. The Commercial Banking segment leverages internal partnerships for wealth management, trust, insurance, payments, and treasury management capabilities. In particular, our payments capabilities continue to expand as we develop unique solutions for our diverse client segments, including Huntington ChoicePay. The Commercial Banking segment includes customers in Middle Market Banking, Corporate, Specialty, and Government Banking, Asset Finance, Commercial Real Estate Banking, and Capital Markets.
Middle Market Banking serves the banking needs of mid-sized clients, leveraging our local presence to serve our clients, and extending our full suite of banking products including lending, liquidity, treasury management and other payment services, and capital markets.
Corporate, Specialty, and Government Banking serves medium to large enterprises. We focus on specific industry verticals such as government and non-profits, healthcare, technology and telecommunications, franchises, financial sponsors, and global services. Our expertise in these markets allows us to uniquely serve our clients’ sophisticated banking, capital markets, and payments requirements.
Asset Finance serves our clients’ capital expenditure and working capital needs through equipment financing, asset-based lending, distribution finance, structured lending, and municipal financing solutions. Our relationship with large manufacturers is bolstered by a strong commitment to their dealers and financing needs.
Commercial Real Estate Banking provides banking solutions to commercial real estate developers and institutional sponsors across the nation. Within this group, Huntington Community Development improves the quality of life for our communities and the residents of low-to-moderate income neighborhoods by developing and delivering innovative products and services to support affordable housing and neighborhood stabilization, including tax credit investments.
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Capital Markets delivers corporate risk management, institutional sales and trading, debt and equity issuance, and additional advisory services.
Treasury / Other: The Treasury / Other function includes technology and operations, and other unallocated assets, liabilities, revenue, and expense.
The financial results for each of these business segments are included in Note 25 - “Segment Reporting” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and are discussed in the “Business Segment Discussion” of our MD&A.
Competition
We compete with other banks and financial services companies such as savings and loans, credit unions, and finance and trust companies, as well as mortgage banking companies, equipment and automobile financing companies (including captive automobile finance companies), insurance companies, mutual funds, investment advisors, brokerage firms, and non-bank lenders both within and outside of our primary market areas. Financial Technology Companies, or FinTechs, are also providing nontraditional, but increasingly strong, competition for our borrowers, depositors, and other customers.
We compete for loans primarily on the basis of value and service by building customer relationships through addressing our customers’ entire suite of banking needs, demonstrating expertise, and providing convenience. We also consider the competitive pricing levels in each of our markets.
We compete for deposits similarly on the basis of value and service and by providing convenience through a banking network of branches and ATMs within our markets and our website at www.huntington.com. We employ customer friendly practices, such as a $50 Safety Zonesm, which prevents customers from being charged an overdraft fee if they overdraw by $50 or less, 24-Hour Grace® account feature for both commercial and consumer accounts, which gives customers an additional business day to cover overdrafts to their account without being charged overdraft fees, Early Pay, which allows customers with direct deposit availability to their paycheck up to two days early, Instant Access, which allows up to $500 of a check deposit available to customers immediately, and Asterisk-Free Checking where there is no cost to open and no monthly maintenance fees. In addition, customers can qualify for Standby Cash® based primarily on their checking deposit history, not their credit score, which provides a $100 to $500 short-term line of credit free with automatic payments, or a 1% monthly interest charge without automatic payments. Huntington also has created a feature called Money Scoutsm, which is a tool that analyzes a customer’s spending habits and moves money that is not being used into that customer’s savings account and have introduced tools including The Hub and Huntington Heads Up® to provide customers greater visibility and control over their financial future. These measures fall under our approach of “Fair Play Banking.”
The table below shows our competitive ranking and market share based on deposits of FDIC-insured institutions as of June 30, 2023, in the top 10 MSAs in which we compete:
MSARank
Deposits
(in millions)
Market Share
Columbus, OH$41,638 40 %
Detroit, MI16,844 
Cleveland, OH14,254 11 
Chicago, IL11 9,149 
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN6,565 
Grand Rapids, MI5,605 19 
Indianapolis, IN5,501 
Akron, OH5,054 28 
Cincinnati, OH4,497 
Pittsburgh, PA4,422 
Source: FDIC.gov, based on June 30, 2023 survey.
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Many of our nonfinancial institution competitors have fewer regulatory constraints, broader geographic service areas, access to a larger pool of capital to deploy, and, in some cases, lower cost structures. In addition, competition for quality customers has intensified as a result of changes in regulation, advances in technology and product delivery systems, and consolidation among financial service providers.
FinTechs continue to emerge in key areas of banking. In addition, larger established technology platform companies continue to evaluate, and in some cases, create businesses focused on banking products. We closely monitor activity in the marketplace to ensure that our products and services are technologically competitive. Further, we continue to invest in and evolve our innovation program to develop, incubate, and launch new products and services driving ongoing differentiated value for our customers. Our overall strategy involves an active corporate development program that seeks to identify partnership and possible investment opportunities in technology-driven companies that can augment our distribution and product capabilities.
Regulatory Matters
Regulatory Environment
The banking industry is highly regulated. We are subject to supervision, regulation, and examination by various federal and state regulators, including the Federal Reserve, OCC, SEC, CFPB, FDIC, FINRA, and various state regulatory agencies. The statutory and regulatory framework that governs us is generally intended to protect depositors and customers, the DIF, the U.S. banking and financial system, and financial markets as a whole.
Banking statutes, regulations, and policies are continually under review by Congress, state legislatures, and federal and state regulatory agencies. In addition to laws and regulations, state and federal bank regulatory agencies may issue policy statements, interpretive letters, and similar written guidance applicable to Huntington and its subsidiaries. Any change in the statutes, regulations, or regulatory policies applicable to us, including changes in their interpretation or implementation, could have a material effect on our business or organization.
Huntington and the Bank each qualify as a Category IV banking organization subject to the least restrictive of the requirements applicable to firms with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets. Our business, however, remains subject to extensive regulation and supervision, and the U.S. banking agencies may issue additional rules to tailor the application of certain other regulatory requirements to BHCs and banks, including Huntington and the Bank. The scope of laws and regulations and the intensity of supervision to which we are subject has increased in response to the banking turmoil in early 2023, technological factors, market changes, and climate change concerns, and there is increased scrutiny and possible denials of bank mergers and acquisitions by federal banking regulators.
We are also subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, both as administered by the SEC, as well as the rules of Nasdaq that apply to companies with securities listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
The following discussion describes certain elements of the comprehensive regulatory framework applicable to us. This discussion is not intended to describe all laws and regulations applicable to Huntington, the Bank, and Huntington’s other subsidiaries.
Supervision, Examination and Enforcement
Huntington is a BHC under the BHC Act that has elected to be a FHC. FHCs may engage in, and be affiliated with, companies engaging in a broader range of activities than those permitted for a BHC, so long as such activities are (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity or (ii) complementary to a financial activity and that do not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of a depository institution or to the financial system generally. These activities include, for example, securities underwriting, securities dealing, making a market in securities, making merchant banking investments in non-financial companies, and engaging in insurance underwriting and agency activities. To become and remain eligible for FHC status, a BHC and its subsidiary depository institutions must meet certain criteria, including capital, management, and CRA requirements. Failure to meet such criteria could result, depending on which requirements were not met, in restrictions on new financial activities or acquisitions, or being required to discontinue existing activities that are not generally permissible for BHCs.
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Huntington is subject to primary supervision, regulation, and examination by the Federal Reserve, which serves as the primary regulator of our consolidated organization. The primary regulators of our non-bank subsidiaries directly regulate the activities of those subsidiaries, with the Federal Reserve exercising a supervisory role. Such non-bank subsidiaries include, for example, broker-dealers and investment advisers both registered with the SEC.
The Bank is a national banking association chartered under the laws of the U.S. As a national bank, the activities of the Bank are limited to those specifically authorized under the National Bank Act and OCC regulations. The Bank is subject to comprehensive primary supervision, regulation, and examination by the OCC. As a member of the DIF, the Bank is also subject to regulation and examination by the FDIC.
A principal objective of the U.S. bank regulatory regime is to protect depositors and customers, the DIF, the U.S. banking and financial system, and financial markets as a whole by ensuring the financial safety and soundness of BHCs and banks, including Huntington and the Bank. Bank regulators regularly examine the operations of BHCs and banks. In addition, BHCs and banks are subject to periodic reporting and filing requirements.
The Federal Reserve, OCC, and FDIC have broad supervisory and enforcement authority with regard to BHCs and banks, including the power to conduct examinations and investigations, impose nonpublic supervisory agreements, issue cease and desist orders, impose fines and other civil and criminal penalties, terminate deposit insurance, and appoint a conservator or receiver. In addition, Huntington, the Bank, and other Huntington subsidiaries are subject to supervision, regulation, and examination by the CFPB, which is the primary administrator of most federal consumer financial statutes and Huntington’s primary consumer financial regulator. Supervision and examinations are confidential, and the outcomes of these actions may not be made public.
Bank regulators have various remedies available if they determine that the financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, or other aspects of a banking organization’s operations are unsatisfactory. The regulators may also take action if they determine that the banking organization or its management is violating or has violated any law or regulation. The regulators have the power to, among other things, (1) prohibit unsafe or unsound practices, (2) require affirmative actions to correct any violation or practice, (3) issue administrative orders that can be judicially enforced, (4) direct increases in capital, (5) direct the sale of subsidiaries or other assets, (6) limit dividends and distributions, (7) restrict growth, (8) assess civil monetary penalties, (9) remove officers and directors, and (10) terminate deposit insurance.
Engaging in unsafe or unsound practices or failing to comply with applicable laws, regulations, and supervisory agreements could subject the Company, its subsidiaries, and their respective officers, directors, and institution-affiliated parties to the remedies described above, and other sanctions. In addition, the FDIC may terminate a bank’s deposit insurance upon a finding that the bank’s financial condition is unsafe or unsound or that the bank has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices or has violated an applicable rule, regulation, order, or condition enacted or imposed by the bank’s regulatory agency.
Huntington is subject to the Federal Reserve’s LFI Rating System, which places a greater emphasis on capital and liquidity, including related planning and risk management practices, as compared to the supervisory rating system applicable to smaller BHCs. These ratings are confidential.
Bank Acquisitions by Huntington
BHCs, such as Huntington, must obtain prior approval of the Federal Reserve in connection with any acquisition that results in the BHC owning or controlling 5% or more of any class of voting securities of a bank or another BHC.
Acquisitions of Ownership of the Company
Acquisitions of Huntington’s voting stock above certain thresholds are subject to prior regulatory notice or approval under federal banking laws, including the BHC Act and the Change in Bank Control Act of 1978. Under the Change in Bank Control Act, a person or entity generally must provide prior notice to the Federal Reserve before acquiring the power to vote 10% or more of our outstanding common stock. Investors should be aware of these requirements when acquiring shares in our stock.
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Interstate Banking
Under the Riegle-Neal Act, a BHC may acquire banks in states other than its home state, subject to any state requirement that the bank has been organized and operating for a minimum period of time, not to exceed five years, and the requirement that the BHC not control, prior to or following the proposed acquisition, more than 10% of the total amount of deposits of insured depository institutions nationwide or, unless the acquisition is the BHC’s initial entry into the state, more than 30% of such deposits in the state (or such lesser or greater amount set by the state). The Riegle-Neal Act also authorizes banks to merge across state lines, thereby creating interstate branches. A national bank, such as the Bank, with the approval of the OCC may open a branch in any state if the law of that state would permit a state bank chartered in that state to establish the branch.
Enhanced Prudential Standards
BHCs with consolidated assets of more than $100 billion, such as Huntington, are currently subject to certain enhanced prudential standards. As a result, Huntington is subject to more stringent standards, including liquidity and capital requirements, leverage limits, stress testing, resolution planning, and risk management standards, than those applicable to smaller institutions. Certain larger banking organizations are subject to additional enhanced prudential standards. As a Category IV banking organization, Huntington is subject to the least restrictive enhanced prudential standards applicable to firms with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets.
Liquidity Requirements
Huntington, as a Category IV banking organization with less than $50 billion in weighted short-term wholesale funding, is exempt from the LCR and net stable funding ratio requirements but continues to be subject to internal liquidity stress tests and standards.
Long-term Debt Requirements
In August 2023, the U.S. banking agencies issued a proposed rule that would require certain large banking organizations such as Huntington to comply with long-term debt requirements and “clean holding company requirements” similar to those that currently only apply to U.S. global systemically important banking organizations. This proposal would also impose a long-term debt requirement on certain categories of insured depository institutions that are not consolidated subsidiaries of U.S. global systematically important banking organizations, including insured depository institutions with $100 billion or more in total assets, such as the Bank. If adopted, this proposal, would require Huntington and the Bank to each maintain a minimum outstanding eligible long-term debt amount of no less than the greater of (i) 6% of total risk-weighted assets, (ii) 2.5% of total leverage exposure (if subject to the supplementary leverage ratio), or (iii) 3.5% of average total consolidated assets. To comply with the requirement, the Bank would be required to issue the minimum amount of eligible long-term debt to Huntington, and Huntington would be required to issue the minimum amount of eligible long-term debt externally. The proposal allows banking organizations to include, as part of the required minimum outstanding eligible long-term debt amounts, certain existing long-term debt. Once the rule is finalized, covered institutions would have three years to comply with the new requirements following a phased-in approach, with 25% of the long-term debt requirement by one year after finalization of the rule, 50% after two years, and 100% after three years.
In addition, if adopted as proposed, the “clean holding company requirements” would limit or prohibit Huntington from entering into certain transactions that could impede its orderly resolution, including, for example, prohibiting Huntington from entering into transactions that could spread losses to subsidiaries and third parties, as well as limiting the amount of the Company’s liabilities that are not eligible long-term debt.
Regulatory Capital Requirements
Huntington and the Bank are subject to certain risk-based capital and leverage ratio requirements under the U.S. Basel III capital rules adopted by the Federal Reserve, for Huntington, and by the OCC, for the Bank. These rules implement the Basel III international regulatory capital standards in the U.S., as well as certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. These quantitative calculations are minimums, and the Federal Reserve and OCC may determine that a banking organization, based on its size, complexity, or risk profile, must maintain a higher level of capital in order to operate in a safe and sound manner.
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Under the U.S. Basel III capital rules, Huntington’s and the Bank’s assets, exposures, and certain off-balance sheet items are subject to risk weights used to determine the institutions’ risk-weighted assets. These risk-weighted assets are used to calculate the following minimum capital ratios for Huntington and the Bank:
CET1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio, equal to the ratio of CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets. CET1 capital primarily includes common shareholders’ equity subject to certain regulatory adjustments and deductions, including goodwill, intangible assets, certain deferred tax assets, and AOCI.
Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio, equal to the ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets. Tier 1 capital is primarily comprised of CET1 capital, perpetual preferred stock, and certain qualifying capital instruments.
Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio, equal to the ratio of total capital, including CET1 capital, Tier 1 capital, and Tier 2 capital, to risk-weighted assets. Tier 2 capital primarily includes qualifying subordinated debt and qualifying ALLL. Tier 2 capital also includes, among other things, certain trust preferred securities.
Tier 1 Leverage Ratio, equal to the ratio of Tier 1 capital to quarterly average assets (net of goodwill, certain other intangible assets, and certain other deductions).
Huntington and the Bank elected to temporarily delay certain effects of CECL on regulatory capital until January 1, 2022, pursuant to a rule that allowed BHCs and banks to delay for two years 100% of the day-one impact of adopting CECL and 25% of the cumulative change in the reported allowance for credit losses since adopting CECL. As of December 31, 2023, we have phased in 50% of the cumulative CECL deferral with the remaining impact to be recognized through the first quarter 2025.
The total minimum regulatory capital ratios and well-capitalized minimum ratios are reflected in the table below in this section. The Federal Reserve has not yet revised the well-capitalized standard for BHCs to reflect the higher capital requirements imposed under the U.S. Basel III capital rules. For purposes of the Federal Reserve’s Regulation Y, including determining whether a BHC meets the requirements to be an FHC, BHCs, such as Huntington, must maintain a Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 6.0% or greater and a Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 10.0% or greater. If the Federal Reserve were to apply the same or a very similar well-capitalized standard to BHCs as that applicable to the Bank, Huntington’s capital ratios as of December 31, 2023, would exceed such revised well-capitalized standard. The Federal Reserve may require BHCs, including Huntington, to maintain capital ratios substantially in excess of mandated minimum levels, depending upon general economic conditions and a BHC’s particular condition, risk profile, and growth plans.
Failure to be well-capitalized or to meet minimum capital requirements could result in certain mandatory and possible additional discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have an adverse material effect on our operations or financial condition. Failure to be well-capitalized or to meet minimum capital requirements could also result in restrictions on Huntington’s or the Bank’s ability to pay dividends or otherwise distribute capital or to receive regulatory approval of applications.
In addition to meeting the minimum capital requirements under the U.S. Basel III capital rules, Huntington and the Bank must maintain the applicable capital buffer (SCB or CCB) requirements to avoid becoming subject to restrictions on capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments to management. Huntington is subject to a SCB of 3.2% effective for the period October 1, 2023 through September 30, 2024. Refer to the SCB Requirements section below for further details. The Bank is subject to a CCB of 2.5%. The Tier 1 Leverage Ratio is not impacted by the SCB or CCB, and a banking institution may be considered well-capitalized while remaining out of compliance with the SCB or CCB.
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The following table presents the minimum regulatory capital ratios, minimum ratio plus the capital buffer, and well-capitalized minimums compared with Huntington’s and the Bank’s regulatory capital ratios as of December 31, 2023, calculated using the regulatory capital methodology applicable as of the end of 2023.
Minimum Regulatory Capital RatioMinimum Ratio + Capital Buffer (1)
Well-Capitalized
Minimums (2)
At December 31, 2023
Actual
Ratios:
CET1 risk-based capital ratioConsolidated4.50 %7.70 %N/A10.25 %
Bank4.50 7.00 6.50 %10.60 
Tier 1 risk-based capital ratioConsolidated6.00 9.20 6.00 11.98 
Bank6.00 8.50 8.00 11.47 
Total risk-based capital ratioConsolidated8.00 11.20 10.00 14.17 
Bank8.00 10.50 10.00 13.09 
Tier 1 leverage ratioConsolidated4.00 N/AN/A9.32 
Bank4.00 N/A5.00 8.51 
(1)    Reflects a SCB of 3.2% for Huntington and CCB of 2.5% for the Bank.
(2)    Reflects the well-capitalized standard applicable to Huntington under Federal Reserve Regulation Y and the well-capitalized standard applicable to the Bank.
Huntington has the ability to provide additional capital to the Bank to maintain the Bank’s risk-based capital ratios at levels which would be considered well-capitalized.
As of December 31, 2023, Huntington’s and the Bank’s regulatory capital ratios were above the well-capitalized standards and met the applicable capital buffer requirements.
Basel III Endgame Proposal
In July 2023, the U.S. banking agencies issued a proposed rule to implement the Basel III endgame agreement for large banks (Basel III Endgame Proposal). In addition to calculating risk-weighted assets under the current U.S. standardized approach, the proposal introduces a new “expanded risk-based approach.” As compared with the standardized approach, the expanded risk-based approach includes more granular risk weights for credit risk and introduces a new market risk framework. The expanded risk-based approach also includes operational risk and credit valuation adjustment risk-weighted asset components. The proposal also would require the new market risk standards from the proposal be applied in the standardized approach.
If adopted as proposed, Huntington would be required to calculate its risk-based capital ratios under both the current U.S. standardized approach and the expanded risk-based approach and would be subject to the lower of the two resulting ratios for each risk-based capital ratio. The proposal would also require banking organizations to recognize most elements of AOCI in regulatory capital, including unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities, and lower thresholds for deductions from CET1 capital for mortgage servicing assets and deferred tax assets, among other things. In addition, the proposal would apply the SCB to risk-based capital requirements calculated under both U.S. standardized approach and the expanded risk-based approach. The proposal includes a proposed effective date of July 1, 2025, with three-year transition arrangements until revised standards are fully phased in on July 1, 2028.
Capital Planning and Stress Testing
Huntington is required to develop, maintain, and submit to the Federal Reserve a capital plan every year, which is subject to supervisory review in connection with the Federal Reserve’s CCAR process. Huntington is required to include within its capital plan an assessment of the expected uses and sources of capital and a description of all planned capital actions over the nine-quarter planning horizon, a detailed description of the process for assessing capital adequacy, its capital policy, and a discussion of any expected changes to its business plan that are likely to have a material impact on its capital adequacy. Under the stress buffer requirements, the CCAR process is used to determine a BHC’s SCB requirement. Please refer to the SCB Requirements section below for further details.
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The Federal Reserve expects BHCs subject to CCAR, such as Huntington, to have sufficient capital to withstand a highly adverse operating environment and to be able to continue operations, maintain ready access to funding, meet obligations to creditors and counterparties, and serve as credit intermediaries. In addition, the Federal Reserve evaluates the planned capital actions of these BHCs, including planned capital distributions such as dividend payments or stock repurchases. This involves a quantitative assessment of capital based on supervisory-run stress tests that assess the ability to maintain capital levels above certain minimum ratios, after taking all capital actions included in a BHC’s capital plan, under baseline and stressful conditions throughout the nine-quarter planning horizon. As part of CCAR, the Federal Reserve evaluates whether BHCs have sufficient capital to continue operations throughout times of economic and financial market stress and whether they have robust, forward-looking capital planning processes that account for their unique risks. We are generally prohibited from making a capital distribution unless, after giving effect to the distribution, we will meet all minimum regulatory capital ratios. Huntington may increase certain types of capital distributions in excess of the amount included in its capital plan without seeking prior approval from the Federal Reserve as long as it otherwise complies with the automatic restrictions on distributions under the Federal Reserve’s capital rules.
Although the Federal Reserve is no longer allowed to object to the capital plan of a large and non-complex BHC, such as Huntington, on a qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, basis, the Federal Reserve may evaluate the strength of Huntington’s qualitative capital planning process through the regular supervisory process and targeted horizontal reviews of particular aspects of capital planning.
SCB Requirements
For risk-based capital requirements, Huntington, as a large BHC, is provided an SCB by the Federal Reserve that is determined annually based on the greater of (i) the difference between its starting and minimum projected CET1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio under the severely adverse scenario in the supervisory stress test, plus the sum of the dollar amount of Huntington’s planned common stock dividends for each of the fourth through seventh quarters of the planning horizon as a percentage of risk-weighted assets, or (ii) 2.5%. On April 5, 2023, Huntington submitted its 2023 Capital Plan to the Federal Reserve for supervisory review. By notice dated June 28, 2023, the Federal Reserve informed Huntington that, effective for the period of October 1, 2023 through September 20, 2024, its indicative SCB requirement associated with its 2023 Capital Plan is 3.2%, a decrease from its previous SCB of 3.3%. Although we were not subject to the Federal Reserve’s 2023 supervisory stress test, our indicative SCB was updated for 2023 based on the dividend add-on component of the SCB.
Huntington is authorized to make capital distributions that are consistent with the requirements in the Federal Reserve’s capital rule, inclusive of the SCB requirement. Provided that Huntington is otherwise in compliance with automatic restrictions on distributions under the Federal Reserve’s capital rules, Huntington is no longer required to seek prior approval to make capital distributions in excess of those included in its capital plan.
Restrictions on Dividends
Huntington is a legal entity separate and distinct from its banking and non-banking subsidiaries. Since our consolidated net income consists largely of net income of Huntington’s subsidiaries, our ability to make capital distributions, including paying dividends and repurchasing shares, depends upon our receipt of dividends from these subsidiaries. Under federal law, there are various limitations on the extent to which the Bank can declare and pay dividends to Huntington, including those related to regulatory capital requirements, general regulatory oversight to prevent unsafe or unsound practices, and federal banking law requirements concerning the payment of dividends out of net profits, surplus, and available earnings. Certain contractual restrictions also may limit the ability of the Bank to pay dividends to Huntington. No assurances can be given that the Bank will, in any circumstances, pay dividends to Huntington.
Huntington’s ability to declare and pay dividends to our shareholders is similarly limited by federal banking law and Federal Reserve regulations and policy. As discussed in the Capital Planning section above, in general, a BHC may pay dividends and repurchase stock only in accordance with a capital plan that has been reviewed by the Federal Reserve and as to which the Federal Reserve has not objected.
Huntington and the Bank must maintain the applicable capital buffer requirements to avoid becoming subject to restrictions on capital distributions, including dividends. For more information on the capital buffer requirements, see the SCB Requirements and the Regulatory Capital Requirements sections above.
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The Federal Reserve has indicated generally that it may be an unsafe or unsound practice for a BHC to pay dividends unless a its net income is sufficient to fund the dividends and the expected rate of earnings retention is consistent with its capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition. The Federal Reserve could prohibit or limit the payment of dividends by a BHC if it determines that payment of the dividend would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice.
Volcker Rule
Under the Volcker Rule, we are prohibited from (1) engaging in short-term proprietary trading for our own account and (2) having certain ownership interests in and relationships with hedge funds or private equity funds (covered funds). The Volcker Rule regulations contain exemptions for market-making, hedging, underwriting, trading in U.S. government and agency obligations, and also permit certain ownership interests in certain types of covered funds to be retained. They also permit the offering and sponsoring of covered funds under certain conditions. The Volcker Rule regulations impose significant compliance and reporting obligations on banking entities, such as Huntington. We have put in place the compliance programs required by the Volcker Rule and any holdings in illiquid covered funds are in compliance with the Volcker Rule.
Resolution Planning
As a Category IV banking organization, Huntington is not required to submit a resolution plan to the Federal Reserve. As an insured depository institution, the Bank is required to file a resolution plan with the FDIC, and the Bank submitted its most recent resolution plan to the FDIC on November 30, 2022. In August 2023, the FDIC issued a proposed rule that would require covered insured depository institutions, such as the Bank, to submit a full resolution plan to the FDIC every two years and submit an interim supplement in each year that it is not required to submit a full resolution plan. The proposed rule would also increase the content requirements for plan submissions and introduce a new credibility standard for the FDIC’s evaluation of resolution plans, which would be enforceable against the covered insured depository institutions.
Source of Strength
Huntington is required to serve as a source of financial and managerial strength to the Bank and, under appropriate conditions, to commit resources to support the Bank. This support may be required by the Federal Reserve at times when we might otherwise determine not to provide it or when doing so is not otherwise in the interests of Huntington or our shareholders or creditors. The Federal Reserve may require a BHC to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank and may charge the BHC with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices if the BHC fails to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank or if it undertakes actions that the Federal Reserve believes might jeopardize the BHC’s ability to commit resources to such subsidiary bank.
Under these requirements, Huntington may in the future be required to provide financial assistance to the Bank should it experience financial distress. Capital loans by Huntington to the Bank would be subordinate in right of payment to deposits and certain other debts of the Bank. In the event of Huntington’s bankruptcy, any commitment by Huntington to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of the Bank would be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.
FDIC as Receiver or Conservator of Huntington
Upon the insolvency of an insured depository institution, such as the Bank, the FDIC may be appointed as the conservator or receiver of the institution. Under the Orderly Liquidation Authority, upon the insolvency of a BHC, such as Huntington, the FDIC may be appointed as conservator or receiver of the BHC, if certain findings are made by the FDIC, the Federal Reserve, and the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the President. Acting as a conservator or receiver, the FDIC would have broad powers to transfer any assets or liabilities of the institution without the approval of the institution’s creditors.
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Depositor Preference
The FDIA provides that, in the event of the liquidation or other resolution of an insured depository institution, including the Bank, the claims of depositors of the institution (including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors) and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver would have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution. If the Bank were to fail, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, would have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors, including Huntington, with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.
Transactions between a Bank and its Affiliates
Federal banking laws and regulations impose qualitative standards and quantitative limitations upon certain transactions between a bank and its affiliates, including between a bank and its holding company and companies that the BHC may be deemed to control for these purposes. Transactions covered by these provisions must be on arm’s-length terms and cannot exceed certain amounts which are determined with reference to the Bank’s regulatory capital. Moreover, if the transaction is a loan or other extension of credit, it must be secured by collateral in an amount and quality expressly prescribed by statute, and if the affiliate is unable to pledge sufficient collateral, the BHC may be required to provide it. The Dodd-Frank Act expanded the coverage and scope of these regulations, including by applying them to the credit exposure arising under derivative transactions, repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, and securities borrowing and lending transactions. Federal banking laws also place similar restrictions on loans and other extensions of credit by FDIC-insured banks, such as the Bank, and their subsidiaries to their directors, executive officers, and principal shareholders.
Lending Standards and Guidance
The federal bank regulatory agencies have adopted uniform regulations prescribing standards for extensions of credit that are secured by liens or interests in real estate or made for the purpose of financing permanent improvements to real estate. Under these regulations, all insured depository institutions, such as the Bank, must adopt and maintain written policies establishing appropriate limits and standards for extensions of credit that are secured by liens or interests in real estate or are made for the purpose of financing permanent improvements to real estate. These policies must establish loan portfolio diversification standards, prudent underwriting standards (including loan-to-value limits) that are clear and measurable, loan administration procedures, and documentation, approval, and reporting requirements. The real estate lending policies must reflect consideration of the federal bank regulatory agencies’ Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies.
Heightened Governance and Risk Management Standards
The OCC has published guidelines to set expectations for the governance and risk management practices of certain large financial institutions, including the Bank. The guidelines require covered institutions to establish and adhere to a written governance framework in order to manage and control their risk-taking activities. In addition, the guidelines provide standards for the institutions’ boards of directors to oversee the risk governance framework. As discussed in the “Risk Management and Capital” section of the MD&A, the Bank currently has a written governance framework and associated controls.
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Anti-Money Laundering
The Bank Secrecy Act and the Patriot Act contain anti-money laundering and financial transparency provisions intended to detect and prevent the use of the U.S. financial system for money laundering and terrorist financing activities. The Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by the Patriot Act, requires depository institutions and their holding companies to undertake activities, including maintaining an AML program, verifying the identity of customers, verifying the identity of certain beneficial owners for legal entity customers, monitoring for and reporting suspicious transactions, reporting on cash transactions exceeding specified thresholds, and responding to requests for information by regulatory authorities and law enforcement agencies. The Bank is subject to the Bank Secrecy Act and, therefore, is required to provide its employees with AML training, designate an AML compliance officer, and undergo an annual, independent audit to assess the effectiveness of its AML program. The Bank has implemented policies, procedures, and internal controls that are designed to comply with these AML requirements. Bank regulators are focusing their examinations on AML compliance, and we will continue to monitor and augment, where necessary, our AML compliance programs. The federal banking agencies are required, when reviewing bank and BHC acquisition or merger applications, to take into account the effectiveness of the AML activities of the applicant.
The Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020, enacted on January 1, 2021 as part of the National Defense Authorization Act, does not directly impose new requirements on banks, but requires the U.S. Treasury to issue National Anti-Money Laundering and Countering the Financing of Terrorism Priorities, and conduct studies and issue regulations that may, over the next few years, significantly alter some of the due diligence, recordkeeping and reporting requirements that the Bank Secrecy Act and Patriot Act impose on banks. The Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020 also contains provisions that promote increased information-sharing and use of technology and increases penalties for violations of the Bank Secrecy Act and includes whistleblower incentives, both of which could increase the prospect of regulatory enforcement.
OFAC Regulation
OFAC is responsible for administering economic sanctions that affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals, and others, as defined by various Executive Orders and in various legislation. OFAC-administered sanctions take many different forms. For example, sanctions may include: (1) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country and prohibitions on U.S. persons engaging in financial transactions relating to, making investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (2) a blocking of assets in which the government or “specially designated nationals” of the sanctioned country have an interest by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction, including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons. OFAC also publishes lists of persons, organizations, and countries suspected of aiding, harboring, or engaging in terrorist acts, known as Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons. Blocked assets, for example property and bank deposits, cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off, or transferred in any manner without a license from OFAC. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences.
Data Privacy
Federal and state law contains extensive consumer privacy protection provisions. The GLBA requires financial institutions to periodically disclose their privacy policies and practices relating to sharing such information and enables retail customers to opt out of our ability to share information with unaffiliated third parties under certain circumstances. Other federal and state laws and regulations impact our ability to share certain information with affiliates and non-affiliates for marketing and/or non-marketing purposes, or to contact customers with marketing offers. These security and privacy policies and procedures for the protection of personal and confidential information are in effect across all businesses and geographic locations as applicable. Federal law also makes it a criminal offense, except in limited circumstances, to obtain or attempt to obtain customer information of a financial nature by fraudulent or deceptive means.
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Data privacy and data protection are areas of increasing state legislative focus. For example, under California state law, the CCPA broadly defines personal information and substantially increases the rights of California residents to understand how their personal information is collected, used, and otherwise processed by commercial businesses, such as affording them the right to access and request deletion of their information and to opt out of certain sharing and sales of personal information. The CCPA contemplates civil penalties of up to $2,500 for each violation and up to $7,500 for each intentional violation and includes a private right of action (permitting lawsuits to be brought by private individuals instead of the state Attorney General or other government actor for certain breaches). In addition, laws in all 50 U.S. states require businesses to provide notice under certain circumstances to consumers whose personal information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. Moreover, the U.S. Congress has recently considered, and is currently considering, various proposals for more comprehensive data privacy and security legislation, to which we may be subject if passed.
Like other lenders, the Bank and other of our subsidiaries use credit bureau data in their underwriting activities. Use of such data is regulated under the FCRA, and the FCRA also regulates reporting information to credit bureaus, prescreening individuals for credit offers, sharing of information between affiliates, and using affiliate data for marketing purposes. Similar state laws may impose additional requirements on us and our subsidiaries.
FDIC Insurance
The DIF provides insurance coverage for certain deposits, up to a standard maximum deposit insurance amount of $250,000 per depositor, and is funded through assessments on insured depository institutions, based on the risk each institution poses to the DIF. The Bank accepts customer deposits that are insured by the DIF and, therefore, must pay insurance premiums. The FDIC may increase the Bank’s insurance premiums based on various factors, including the FDIC’s assessment of its risk profile.
The FDIC also requires large insured depository institutions, including the Bank, to maintain enhanced deposit account recordkeeping and related information technology system capabilities to facilitate prompt payment of insured deposits if such an institution were to fail.
The FDIC, as required under the FDIA, established a plan on September 15, 2020, to restore the DIF reserve ratio to meet or exceed the statutory minimum of 1.35% within eight years. This plan did not include an increase in the deposit insurance assessment rate. Based on the FDIC’s recent projections, however, the FDIC determined that the DIF reserve ratio is at risk of not reaching the statutory minimum by the statutory deadline of September 30, 2028 without increasing the deposit insurance assessment rates. In October 2022, the FDIC adopted a final rule to increase initial base deposit insurance assessment rate schedules uniformly by 2 basis points, beginning on January 1, 2023. The FDIC also concurrently maintained the Designated Reserve Ratio for the DIF at 2%.
In November 2023, the FDIC issued a final rule to implement a special assessment to recoup losses to the DIF associated with bank failures in the first half of 2023. Under the final rule, the assessment base for the special assessment is equal to an insured depository institution’s estimated uninsured deposits reported as of December 31, 2022, adjusted to exclude the first $5 billion of uninsured deposits. The final rule provides that the FDIC will collect the special assessment at a quarterly rate of 3.36 basis points over eight quarterly assessment periods, subject to change depending on any adjustments to the loss estimate, mergers or failures, or amendments to reported estimates of uninsured deposits. Based on the Bank’s reported uninsured deposits as of December 31, 2022, the entire estimated amount of approximately $214 million was recognized as an accrued liability and related expense in the fourth quarter of 2023. The final rule becomes effective April 1, 2024, and the first collection will be reflected on the invoice for the first quarterly assessment period of 2024, with the first payment due on June 28, 2024.
Compensation
Our compensation practices are subject to oversight by the Federal Reserve and, with respect to some of our subsidiaries and employees, by other financial regulatory bodies. The scope and content of compensation regulation in the financial industry are continuing to develop, and we expect that these regulations and resulting market practices will continue to evolve over a number of years.
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The federal bank regulatory agencies have issued joint guidance on executive compensation designed to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations, such as Huntington and the Bank, do not encourage imprudent risk taking and are consistent with the safety and soundness of the organization. The SEC also finalized a rule that directs stock exchanges to require listed companies to implement clawback policies to recover incentive-based compensation from current or former executive officers in the event of certain financial restatements and requires companies to disclose their clawback policies and their actions under those policies.
Cybersecurity
The GLBA requires financial institutions to implement a comprehensive information security program that includes administrative, technical, and physical safeguards to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer records and information.
The CISA is intended to improve cybersecurity in the U.S. by enhanced sharing of information about security threats among the U.S. government and private sector entities, including financial institutions. The CISA also authorizes companies to monitor their own systems notwithstanding any other provision of law and allows companies to carry out defensive measures on their own systems from cyber-attacks. The law includes liability protections for companies that share cyber-threat information with third parties so long as such sharing activity is conducted in accordance with CISA.
In addition, effective April 1, 2022, the Federal Reserve, OCC and FDIC issued a rule that, among other things, requires a banking organization to notify its primary federal regulator within 36 hours after identifying a “computer-security incident” that the banking organization believes in good faith could materially disrupt, degrade or impair its business or operations in a manner that would, among other things, jeopardize the viability of its operations, result in customers being unable to access their deposit and other accounts, result in a material loss of revenue, profit or franchise value, or pose a threat to the financial stability of the U.S.
Community Reinvestment Act
The CRA is intended to encourage banks to help meet the credit needs of their service areas, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and soundness practices. The relevant federal bank regulatory agency, the OCC in the Bank’s case, examines each bank and assigns it a public CRA rating. A bank’s record of fair lending compliance is part of the resulting CRA examination report.
The CRA requires the relevant federal bank regulatory agency to consider a bank’s CRA assessment when considering the bank’s application to conduct certain mergers or acquisitions or to open or relocate a branch office. The Federal Reserve also must consider the CRA record of each subsidiary bank of a BHC in connection with any acquisition or merger application filed by the BHC. An unsatisfactory CRA record could substantially delay or result in the denial of an approval or application by Huntington or the Bank. The Bank received the highest possible overall CRA rating of “Outstanding” in its most recent examination.
In October 2023, the U.S. banking agencies issued a final rule to amend their regulations implementing the CRA. The rule materially revises the current CRA framework, including the assessment areas in which a bank is evaluated to include activities associated with online and mobile banking, the tests used to evaluate the Bank in its assessment areas, new methods of calculating credit for lending, investment, and service activities, and additional data collection and reporting requirements. The rule is expected to result in a significant increase in the thresholds for large banks to receive “Outstanding” ratings in the future. The rule is expected to take effect on April 1, 2024, with most of its provisions becoming applicable on January 1, 2026. Reporting of the collected data will not be required until 2027.
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Debit Interchange Fees
We are subject to a statutory requirement that interchange fees for electronic debit transactions that are paid to or charged by payment card issuers, including the Bank, be reasonable and proportional to the cost incurred by the issuer. Interchange fees for electronic debit transactions are limited to 21 cents plus 0.05% of the transaction, plus an additional one cent per transaction fraud adjustment. These fees impose requirements regarding routing and exclusivity of electronic debit transactions. On October 3, 2022, the Federal Reserve finalized a rule that amends Regulation II to, among other things, specify that debit card issuers should enable all debit card transactions, including card-not-present transactions such as online payments, to be processed on at least two unaffiliated payment card networks. The final rule became effective July 1, 2023. As an issuer with over $10 billion in assets, Huntington is subject to Regulation II and is in compliance with these new requirements.
In October 2023, the Federal Reserve released a notice of proposed rulemaking that would lower the maximum interchange fee that a large debit card issuer can receive on a debit card transaction. Under the proposal, the base component would initially decrease from 21.0 cents to 14.4 cents, the ad valorem component would decrease from 5.0 basis points to 4.0 basis points multiplied by the value of the transaction, and the fraud-prevention adjustment would increase from 1.0 cents to 1.3 cents for debit card transactions performed from the effective date of the final rule to June 30, 2025. In addition, the proposal would adopt an approach for future adjustments to the interchange fee cap, which would occur every other year based on issuer cost data gathered from large debit card issuers.
Consumer Protection Regulation and Supervision
We are subject to supervision and regulation by the CFPB with respect to federal consumer protection laws. We are also subject to certain state consumer protection laws, and under the Dodd-Frank Act, state attorneys general and other state officials are empowered to enforce certain federal consumer protection laws and regulations. State authorities have increased their focus on and enforcement of consumer protection rules. These federal and state consumer protection laws apply to a broad range of our activities and to various aspects of our business and include laws relating to interest rates, fair lending, disclosures of credit terms and estimated transaction costs to consumer borrowers, debt collection practices, the use of and the provision of information to consumer reporting agencies, and the prohibition of unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices in connection with the offer, sale, or provision of consumer financial products and services.
In January 2024, the CFPB issued a notice of proposed rulemaking that would amend Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act, to apply to overdraft credit provided by insured depository institutions with more than $10 billion in total assets unless the overdraft fee is restricted to a small amount that only recovers applicable costs and losses. Under the proposal, covered institutions, including the Bank, would be allowed to choose to offer overdrafts as a courtesy overdraft service or as a line of credit. If the courtesy overdraft option is chosen, overdrafts would remain exempt from Regulation Z, as long as fees charged are based on the higher of an institutions breakeven point derived from its own costs and losses, or a benchmark fee established by the CFPB. If the overdraft line of credit option is chosen, overdrafts would be considered a loan subject to Regulation Z, and therefore, subject to account opening and loan disclosures, required to be held in an account separate from the customer’s checking or transaction account, and may not be conditioned on preauthorized electronic funds transfers. If adopted, the proposal would go into effect on the October 1st that follows publication of the final rule in the Federal Register by at least six months. The CFPB currently expects the effective date to be October 1, 2025. We are in the process of evaluating this proposed rulemaking and assessing its potential impact on the Company and the Bank if adopted as proposed.
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ESG
ESG Oversight
With oversight from our Board of Directors, we are committed to implementing strong ESG practices by living out our Purpose of making people’s lives better, helping businesses thrive, and strengthening the communities we serve. The following represents how ESG is governed and integrated throughout the Company:
Board Nominating and ESG Committee
Board Risk Oversight Committee
Executive Leadership Team
Chief ESG Officer
Climate Risk Director
Chief ESG Officer and Strategy Team
Our Chief ESG Officer leads an ESG Strategy Team, responsible for (1) advancing enterprise ESG strategy and facilitating implementation of the strategy at the business levels; (2) ensuring consistent understanding of ESG strategy throughout the Company; (3) leading ESG regulatory compliance efforts; and (4) overseeing ESG goal setting, reporting, and monitoring. The team also works to identify ESG-related innovation and advancement opportunities aligned with strategic planning. This group includes executive leaders across business segments and support units. The Chief ESG Officer also coordinates an ESG Working Group comprised of a cross functional enterprise team that is responsible for publishing various ESG related disclosures, including our ESG and TCFD reports.
Climate Risk Director and Team
Our Climate Risk Director and climate risk management team are responsible for providing input into the identification, assessment, and monitoring of climate-related risks, including guidance and insight relative to areas of expertise by the members who represent business units across the Company. This team is also tasked with offering input into emissions calculations and climate scenario analyses to help identify and mitigate prospective risks.
Economic
We are committed to delivering sustainable, long-term shareholder value through financial performance, while maintaining an aggregate moderate-to-low, through-the-cycle risk appetite and a well-capitalized position. We align our corporate strategy to our purpose of helping others and building upon our market-leading, purpose-driven bank through focused efforts on the environmental and social issues most important to our business and our stakeholders.
In June 2021, we made a five-year $40 billion commitment toward our Community Plan to strengthen small businesses and foster economic justice throughout our footprint. Our Community Plan was developed to support communities by enabling and improving financial opportunities for people, businesses, and neighborhoods through commitments focusing on increasing lending, investing, and services to address economic, social, environmental, and racial equity areas of need as follows:
Huntington committed to providing $24 billion in affordable housing financing and consumer lending. Through September 30, 2023, we have reached $13.6 billion of this commitment.
Huntington expanded its Small Business lending programs into its acquired TCF footprint and committed $10 billion to the programs. Through September 30, 2023, we have reached $5.6 billion of this commitment.
Huntington committed $6.5 billion in community development loans and investments to establish programs and services that foster equity in areas such as affordable housing, small business financing, and community services. Through September 30, 2023, we have reached $5.7 billion of this commitment.
Embedded in the areas of need above is a $16 billion commitment for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion initiatives, with allocation of funds to diverse borrowers and communities to advance systemic change. Through September 30, 2023, we have reached $10.2 billion of this commitment.
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Huntington has additionally developed a Lift Local Business® program, and made a commitment of $100 million, which supports entrepreneurs who have been historically under-resourced, particularly minority-, woman-, and veteran-owned small businesses throughout the business life cycle. This program offers loans, business planning support, free financial education courses delivered through Operation HOPE, and other services to help small business owners achieve their goals. Through October 31, 2023, we have reached $89 million of this commitment.
Environmental
Huntington supports environmental stewardship, reflecting our commitment to mitigating the effects of climate change, promoting biodiversity, and reducing our reliance on natural resources. Our path to a more sustainable future is guided by our environmental and climate strategies, preparing to comply with future regulatory and reporting requirements, transitioning to renewable sources of energy, improving our energy efficiency, and growing our renewable energy financing capabilities.
We report on our commitment and transparency in numerous ways. These include:
Annual disclosures to CDP, a global initiative where we track and submit data annually toward managing our carbon footprint and certain other aspects of our environmental impact;
Preparing an annual TCFD Report that discusses in detail our approach toward environmental and climate governance, strategy, risk management, and performance; and
Working closely with shareholders and key ESG rating agencies to disclose details about our environmental programs.
In 2023, we published our second standalone TCFD Report on 2022 data; we established new Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions reductions goals, building on the success of our prior emission reduction efforts; and we established new water consumption and landfill waste goals. We have made progress in achieving our use of 50% renewable energy goal, having executed two power purchase agreements. Consistent with our membership in the Partnership for Carbon Accounting Financials organization, we have disclosed the Scope 3, Category 15 emissions associated with our consumer automobile portfolio. Our Climate Risk team continues to work toward computing reliable, accurate estimates of other Scope 3, Category 15 portfolios.
Human Capital (Social)
Huntington aspires to be a Category of One financial services institution: an organization unique in the combination of its culture and performance. Huntington had 19,955 average full-time equivalent colleagues during 2023, whom we encourage to support a shared purpose of making our colleagues’ and customers’ lives better, helping businesses thrive, and strengthening the communities we serve. We believe that our diverse workforce, supported by a culture of inclusiveness, enriches the experience of colleagues, and enhances our ability to perform as a company.
We engage with our colleagues to gain valuable feedback on a wide range of subjects related to the experience of working at Huntington, with a strategic focus on culture, trust, and engagement. We value the feedback colleagues choose to share and use the information to drive our talent management strategy, which focuses on four key areas and a commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion:
Engagement
Development
Retention, and
Attraction of top talent
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Engagement
At Huntington, we have taken steps to ensure our values, beliefs, and behaviors align with those of our colleagues. We have highly engaged colleagues committed to looking out for each other and our customers with a balanced focus on “what we do” and “how we do it.” This synergy has proven to positively impact colleague performance and satisfaction. 2023 marked the tenth consecutive year we conducted a company-wide engagement survey to measure our colleagues’ experience with a strategic focus on culture, trust, and engagement – and the results were reaffirming. In 2023, 85%, 82%, and 84% of colleagues responded favorably on trust, culture, and engagement, respectively. These results place Huntington in the top quartile of favorability for Culture and Trust among our benchmark peer group. 81% of colleagues responded they would recommend Huntington as a great place to work.
The annual company-wide engagement survey is just one element of our continual colleague feedback program, which includes quick colleague pulse, new hire, manager-specific, and exit surveys. These surveys enhance leader understanding of the colleague experience, position Huntington to respond to colleague needs, and provide strong support to colleagues as they deliver performance in the spirit of our Purpose and Values.
At Huntington, living our shared Purpose extends beyond our daily work. We believe that building connections between colleagues, their families and our communities create a meaningful, fulfilling, and enjoyable colleague experience. During 2023, Huntington colleagues provided almost 36,000 volunteer hours to over 1,300 organizations across our footprint, including foodbanks, homeless shelters, local schools, senior housing, and afterschool programs.
Development
We have created specialized programs to help our colleagues grow and develop. These programs include an online library which allows colleagues to take ownership of their development via direct access to role-based content. The content is divided into three key areas of development: learning and growth, maximizing performance, and protecting the company. All of the programming offered includes diversity, equity, and inclusion content. During 2023, colleagues at Huntington completed more than 500,000 training hours. Huntington also provided a High-Potential Talent Development Program to top talent colleagues, so that they may further develop and accelerate their career growth. Additionally, we offer our full-time colleagues the ability to obtain post-secondary education with reimbursement of eligible tuition. In addition to these programs, Huntington has also launched a program to capture the skills of all colleagues and match colleagues to internal job opportunities based on those skills.
Retention
Huntington is committed to creating an environment where colleagues are valued, supported, and empowered. We offer competitive compensation and benefit programs that further strengthen our employment value proposition and encourages colleague retention. With respect to pay, Huntington offers a minimum hourly rate of $20 per hour and competitive wages at all levels of the organization. To ensure competitive pay, we regularly benchmark against the marketplace. Our compensation structure includes benefit plans and programs focused on multiple facets of well-being, including physical, mental, and financial wellness. We also offer Workplace Flex, a program of practices for colleagues, so that we can support them to achieve a healthy balance between work and life outside of work. The program includes certain practices that enable colleagues multiple paths to achieving balance, when available and appropriate, including: flexible scheduling (staggered hours, compressed workweeks, part-time schedules, and job-sharing), flexible work location (remote, hybrid, and on-site), and both health and financial wellness support beyond the basic medical/visual/dental programs (adoption and fertility, parental leave, on-site fitness and fitness discounts, mental health and financial counseling services, support for chronic conditions). Collectively, these practices are designed to position colleagues to be their best self both at work and outside of work.
Huntington’s commitment to pay equity works to ensure that gender, race, and ethnicity are not determining factors in salaries, bonuses, and stock-based awards. We continue to identify and implement effective practices to promote pay equity, including pay analyses, additional hiring practices that protect pay equity, and training managers on explicit and implicit bias in compensation and promotion decisions. Huntington conducts a pay equity analysis annually, evaluating pay for colleagues performing the same work, designed to ensure equity across races and genders.
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Collectively, these strategies create a colleague experience that entices colleagues to stay and fulfill their goals with Huntington.
Attraction of top talent
We are dedicated to attracting top talent with an emphasis on experience and behaviors that align with our Purpose and our core values of ‘Can Do Attitude, Forward Thinking, and Service Heart.’
The diversity of our colleagues is a key component of our success as an organization as it allows us to have a workforce that is representative of the communities we serve and is critical to our sustained success and growth. We proactively seek out a diverse candidate pool during the recruitment process across all levels. We are focused on identifying, supporting, and promoting qualified diverse candidates in leadership roles. As of December 31, 2023, our combined middle, senior, and executive management levels were 48% diverse and our total workforce was 67% diverse. For the purpose of reporting the aforementioned data, we acknowledge diverse individuals as those who are identified as women, or as being racially/ethnically diverse.
Our commitment to creating an inclusive, diverse environment involves embracing different skills, backgrounds, and perspectives, both in our communities and at work. Our DEI Strategy and Operating Plan encompasses four focus areas, workplace inclusion, workforce diversity, community engagement, and supplier diversity. We execute this strategy and operating plan in multiple ways. Our Chief Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Officer promotes DEI perspectives as an integral part of executive decisions made at Huntington by measuring and socializing progress on diversity across our footprint and providing diversity and inclusion programs to our colleagues. In addition, we have Inclusion Councils, Business Resource Groups, and Communities of Practice to support our commitment to engage, develop, retain, and attract top diverse talent. Inclusion Councils are voluntary, colleague driven regional and office-specific councils that focus on an inclusive, respectful, and supportive environment for all colleagues. The Business Resource Groups are voluntary, colleague-driven groups organized around a shared interest or common diversity dimension, each sponsored by a senior executive. The Communities of Practice are colleague-led, volunteer affinity groups which share information and experiences with fellow members. We believe that all of these are important components to our inclusion strategy and deliver content throughout the year.
Governance
Our Board of Directors and ELT are committed to executing on our long-term vision and aligning our strategic objectives with the interests of our stakeholders. Our Board members are accomplished leaders from diverse backgrounds, bringing the perspectives, skills, and experience necessary to use independent judgment to provide effective oversight and drive continued success. Our Board sets the strategy, risk appetite, and ethical standards for the entire organization, and our ELT ensures our business and enterprise functions operate with high legal, ethical, and moral standards through clearly stated policies and procedures. Additionally, our leaders set the tone at the top and oversee compliance with our standards and direct the company’s financial reporting and internal controls.
At the end of 2023, our Board consisted of 15 directors, comprised of our Chairman/President/CEO, our Huntington National Bank Chairman, and 13 independent directors. Our key risk and governance committees require at least three directors who are independent and are chaired by an independent director with the knowledge and expertise to lead the committee. Each year, the Board evaluates its leadership organization to ensure it is best structure to provide oversight of the Company and execute against our strategy objectives. As of December 31, 2023, our ELT and Board were 50% and 47% diverse, respectively.
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Available Information
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance with the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly, and current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet web site that contains reports, proxy statements, and other information about issuers, like us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of the site is http://www.sec.gov. The reports and other information, including any related amendments, filed by us with, or furnished by us to, the SEC are also available free of charge at our Internet web site as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The address of the site is http://www.huntington.com. Except as specifically incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K, information on those web sites is not part of this report. You also should be able to inspect reports, proxy statements, and other information about us at the offices of the Nasdaq National Market at 33 Whitehall Street, New York, New York 10004.
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Item 1A: Risk Factors
The risks and uncertainties listed below present risks that could have a material impact on Huntington’s financial condition, the results of operations, or its business. Some of these risks and uncertainties are interrelated and the occurrence of one or more of them may exacerbate the effect of others. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones Huntington faces. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to Huntington or that Huntington believes to be immaterial may also adversely affect its business. Additionally refer to factors set forth under the caption “Forward-Looking Statements.” For more information on how we manage risks, see discussion in the “Risk Governance” section of our MD&A.
In addition to the other information included or incorporated by reference into this report, readers should carefully consider that the following important factors, among others, could negatively impact our business, future results of operations, and future cash flows materially.
Credit Risks:
Our ACL level may prove to not be adequate or be negatively affected by credit risk exposures which could adversely affect our net income and capital.
Our business depends on the creditworthiness of our customers. Our ACL of $2.4 billion at December 31, 2023, represented management’s estimate of the current expected losses in our loan and lease portfolio (ALLL) as well as our unfunded lending commitments (AULC). We regularly review our ACL for appropriateness. In doing so, we consider probability of default, loss given default, and exposure at default depending on economic parameters for each month of the remaining contractual term of the credit exposure. The economic parameters are developed using available information relating to past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. There is no certainty that our ACL will be appropriate over time to cover lifetime losses of the portfolio because of unanticipated adverse changes in the economy, market conditions, or events adversely affecting specific customers, industries, or markets. If the credit quality of our customer base materially decreases, if the risk profile of a market, industry, or group of customers changes materially, or if the ACL is not appropriate, our net income and capital could be materially adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, regulatory review of risk ratings and loan and lease losses may impact the level of the ACL and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Weakness in economic conditions could adversely affect our business.
Continued economic uncertainty and a recessionary or stagnant economy could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Our performance could be negatively affected to the extent there is deterioration in business and economic conditions, including persistent inflation, rising interest rates, supply chain issues or labor shortages, which have direct or indirect material adverse impacts on us, our customers, and our counterparties. These conditions could result in one or more of the following:
A decrease in the demand for loans and other products and services offered by us;
A decrease in customer savings generally, and in the demand for savings and investment products offered by us;
An increase in the number of customers and counterparties who become delinquent, file for protection under bankruptcy laws, or default on their loans or other obligations to us; and
An increase in the number of delinquencies, bankruptcies, or defaults could result in a higher level of NPAs, NCOs, provision for credit losses, and valuation adjustments on loans held for sale.
The markets we serve are dependent on industrial and manufacturing businesses and, thus, are particularly vulnerable to adverse changes in economic conditions affecting these sectors.
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A U.S. government debt default would have a material adverse impact on our business and financial performance, including a decrease in the value of Treasury bonds and other government securities held by us, which could negatively impact the Bank’s capital position and its ability to meet regulatory requirements. Other negative impacts of a U.S. government debt default, budget deficit concerns, government shutdown, or related credit ratings downgrades could include volatile capital markets, an adverse impact on the U.S. economy and the U.S. dollar, as well as increased default rates among borrowers in light of increased economic uncertainty. Some of these impacts might occur even in the absence of an actual default or government shutdown as a consequence of extended political negotiations around the threat of such a default or government shutdown.
Market Risks:
Changes in interest rates could reduce our net interest income, reduce transactional income, and negatively impact the value of our loans, securities, and other assets. This could have an adverse impact on our cash flows, financial condition, results of operations, and capital.
Our results of operations depend substantially on net interest income, which is the difference between interest earned on interest earning assets (such as investments and loans) and interest paid on interest bearing liabilities (such as deposits and borrowings). Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary policies, inflation, and domestic and international economic and political conditions. Conditions such as inflation, deflation, recession, unemployment, money supply, and other factors beyond our control may also affect interest rates. In addition, the Federal Reserve’s monetary policies, including changes in the federal funds rate and increasing or reducing the size of its balance sheet, may also affect interest rates. If our interest earning assets mature or reprice faster than interest bearing liabilities in a declining interest rate environment, net interest income could be materially adversely impacted. Likewise, if interest bearing liabilities mature or reprice more quickly than interest earning assets in a rising interest rate environment, net interest income could be adversely impacted.
Changes in interest rates can affect the value of loans, securities, assets under management, and other assets, including mortgage servicing rights. An increase in interest rates that adversely affects the ability of borrowers to pay the principal or interest on loans and leases may lead to an increase in NPAs and a reduction of income recognized, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. When we place a loan on nonaccrual status, we reverse any accrued but unpaid interest receivable, which decreases interest income. However, we continue to incur interest expense as a cost of funding NALs without any corresponding interest income. In addition, transactional income, including trust income, brokerage income, and gain on sales of loans can vary significantly from period-to-period based on a number of factors, including the interest rate environment. A decline in interest rates could result in declining net interest margins if longer duration assets reprice faster than deposits.
Rising interest rates reduce the value of our fixed-rate securities. Any unrealized loss from these portfolios impacts OCI, shareholders’ equity, and the Tangible Common Equity ratio. Any realized loss from these portfolios impacts regulatory capital ratios. For more information, refer to “Market Risk” section of the MD&A.
Certain investment securities, notably mortgage-backed securities, are sensitive to rising and falling rates. Generally, when rates rise, prepayments of principal and interest will decrease, and the duration of mortgage-backed securities will increase. Conversely, when rates fall, prepayments of principal and interest will increase, and the duration of mortgage-backed securities will decrease. In either case, interest rates have a significant impact on the value of mortgage-backed securities.
MSR fair values are sensitive to movements in interest rates, as expected future net servicing income depends on the projected outstanding principal balances of the underlying loans, which can be reduced by prepayments. Prepayments usually increase when mortgage interest rates decline and decrease when mortgage interest rates rise.
In addition to volatility associated with interest rates, the Company also has exposure to equity markets related to the investments within the benefit plans and other income from client-based transactions.
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Inflation could negatively impact our business, our profitability, and our stock price.
Prolonged periods of inflation may impact our profitability by negatively impacting our fixed costs and expenses, including increasing funding costs and expense related to talent acquisition and retention. Additionally, inflation may lead to a decrease in consumer and clients’ purchasing power and negatively affect the need or demand for our products and services. If significant inflation continues, our business could be negatively affected by, among other things, increased default rates leading to credit losses which could decrease our appetite for new credit extensions. These inflationary pressures could result in missed earnings and budgetary projections causing our stock price to suffer.
Industry competition may have an adverse effect on our success.
Our profitability depends on our ability to compete successfully. We operate in a highly competitive environment, and we expect competition to intensify. Certain of our competitors are larger and have more resources than we do, enabling them to be more aggressive than us in competing for loans and deposits. In our market areas, we face competition from other banks and financial service companies that offer similar services. Some of our non-bank competitors are not subject to the same extensive regulations we are and, therefore, may have greater flexibility in competing for business. Technological advances have made it possible for our non-bank competitors to offer products and services that traditionally were banking products and for financial institutions and other companies to provide electronic and internet-based financial solutions, including mobile payments, online deposit accounts, electronic payment processing, and marketplace lending, without having a physical presence where their customers are located. Legislative or regulatory changes also could lead to increased competition in the financial services sector. For example, the Economic Growth Act and the Tailoring Rules reduce the regulatory burden of certain large BHCs and raise the asset thresholds at which more onerous requirements apply, which could cause certain large BHCs to become more competitive or to more aggressively pursue expansion. Our ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including customer convenience, quality of service by investing in new products and services, electronic platforms, personal contacts, pricing, and range of products. If we are unable to successfully compete for new customers and retain our current customers, our business, financial condition, or results of operations may be adversely affected. In particular, if we experience an outflow of deposits as a result of our customers seeking investments with higher yields or greater financial stability, or a desire to do business with our competitors, we may be forced to rely more heavily on borrowings and other sources of funding to operate our business and meet withdrawal demands, thereby adversely affecting our net interest margin. For more information, refer to “Competition” section of Item 1: Business.
Liquidity Risks:
Changes in Huntington’s financial condition or in the general banking industry, or changes in interest rates, could result in a loss of depositor confidence.
Liquidity is the ability to meet cash flow needs on a timely basis at a reasonable cost. The Bank uses its liquidity to extend credit and to repay liabilities as they become due or as demanded by customers.
Our primary source of liquidity is our large supply of deposits from consumer and commercial customers. The continued availability of this supply depends on customer willingness to maintain deposit balances with banks in general, and us in particular. The availability of deposits can also be impacted by regulatory changes (e.g., changes in FDIC insurance, liquidity requirements, etc.), changes in the financial condition of Huntington, other banks, or the banking industry in general, changes in the interest rates our competitors pay on their deposits, and other events which can impact the perceived safety or economic benefits of bank deposits. While we make significant efforts to consider and plan for hypothetical disruptions in our deposit funding, market-related, geopolitical, or other events could impact the liquidity derived from deposits.
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We are a holding company and depend on dividends by our subsidiaries for most of our funds.
Huntington is an entity separate and distinct from the Bank. The Bank conducts most of our operations, and Huntington depends upon dividends from the Bank to service Huntington’s debt and to pay dividends to Huntington’s shareholders. The availability of dividends from the Bank is limited by various statutes and regulations. It is possible, depending upon the financial condition including liquidity and capital adequacy of the Bank and other factors, that the OCC could limit the payment of dividends or other payments to Huntington by the Bank. In addition, the payment of dividends by our other subsidiaries is also subject to the laws of the subsidiary’s state of incorporation, and regulatory capital and liquidity requirements applicable to such subsidiaries. In the event that the Bank was unable to pay dividends to us, we in turn would likely have to reduce or stop paying dividends on our Preferred and Common Stock. Our failure to pay dividends on our Preferred and Common Stock could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our Preferred and Common Stock. Additional information regarding dividend restrictions is provided in Item 1: Business - “Regulatory Matters.”
If we lose access to capital markets, we may not be able to meet the cash flow requirements of our depositors, creditors, and borrowers, or have the operating cash needed to fund corporate expansion and other corporate activities.
Wholesale funding sources can include securitization, federal funds purchased, securities sold under repurchase agreements, non-core deposits, and long-term debt. The Bank is also a member of the FHLB, which provides members access to funding through advances collateralized with mortgage-related assets. We maintain a portfolio of highly-rated, marketable securities that is available as a source of liquidity.
We may, from time-to-time, consider using our existing liquidity position to opportunistically retire outstanding securities in privately negotiated or open market transactions.
Capital markets disruptions can directly impact the liquidity of Huntington and the Bank. Our ability to access the capital markets, if needed, will depend on a number of factors, including the state of the financial markets. Rising interest rates, disruptions in financial markets, negative perceptions of our business or our financial strength, negative perceptions of the overall banking industry or of other regional banks, or other factors may impact our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, on terms acceptable to us. For example, in the event of future turmoil in the banking industry or other idiosyncratic events, there is no guarantee that the U.S. government will invoke the systemic risk exception, create additional liquidity programs, or take any other action to stabilize the banking industry or provide liquidity. Any diminished ability to access short-term funding or capital markets to raise additional capital, if needed, could subject us to liability, restrict our ability to grow, require us to take actions that would affect our earnings negatively or otherwise adversely affect our business and our ability to implement our business plan, capital plan and strategic goals.
A reduction in our credit rating could adversely affect our access to capital and could increase our cost of funds.
The credit rating agencies regularly evaluate Huntington and the Bank, and credit ratings are based on a number of factors, including our financial strength and ability to generate earnings, as well as factors not entirely within our control, including conditions affecting the financial services industry, the economy, and changes in rating methodologies. There can be no assurance that we will maintain our current credit ratings. A downgrade of the credit ratings of Huntington or the Bank could adversely affect our access to liquidity and capital, and could significantly increase our cost of funds, trigger additional collateral or funding requirements, and decrease the number of investors and counterparties willing to lend to us or purchase our securities. This could affect our growth, profitability, and financial condition, including liquidity.
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Instability in global economic conditions and geopolitical matters, as well as volatility in financial markets, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Instability in global economic conditions and geopolitical matters, as well as volatility in financial markets, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. The macroeconomic environment in the U.S. is susceptible to global events and volatility in financial markets. For example, global conflicts (including the continuing conflicts involving Ukraine and the Russian Federation and those in the Middle East) or other similar events, as well as government actions of other restrictions in connection with such events, and trade negotiations between the U.S. and other nations could adversely impact economic and market conditions for the Company and its clients and counterparties. In addition, global supply chain disruptions may cause prolonged inflation, adversely impact consumer and business confidence, and adversely affect the economy as well as our financial condition and results.
Operational Risks:
Our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of third parties, could fail or be breached, which could disrupt our business and adversely impact our operations, liquidity, and financial condition, as well as cause legal or reputational harm.
The potential for operational risk exposure exists throughout our business and, as a result of our interactions with, and reliance on, third parties, is not limited to our own internal operational functions. Our operational and security systems and infrastructure, including our computer systems, data management, and internal processes, as well as those of third parties, are integral to our performance. We rely on our employees and third parties in our day-to-day and ongoing operations, who may, as a result of human error, misconduct, malfeasance, failure, or breach of our or of third-party systems or infrastructure, expose us to risk. For example, our ability to conduct business may be adversely affected by any significant disruptions to us or to third parties with whom we interact or upon whom we rely. Our financial, accounting, data processing, backup, or other operating or security systems and infrastructure may fail to operate properly or become disabled or damaged as a result of a number of factors, including events that are wholly or partially beyond our control, which could adversely affect our ability to process transactions or provide services. Such events may include: sudden increases in customer transaction volume; electrical, telecommunications, or other major physical infrastructure outages; disease pandemics; cyber-attacks; and events arising from local or larger scale political or social matters, including wars and terrorist attacks. Additional events beyond our control that could impact our business directly or indirectly include natural disasters such as earthquakes and weather events, including tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods. Neither the occurrence nor the potential impact of these events can be predicted, and the frequency and severity of weather events may be impacted by climate changes. In addition, we may need to take our systems off-line if they become infected with malware or a computer virus or as a result of another form of cyber-attack. In the event that backup systems are utilized, they may not process data as quickly as our primary systems and some data might not have been saved to backup systems, potentially resulting in a temporary or permanent loss of such data. In addition, our ability to implement backup systems and other safeguards with respect to third-party systems is more limited than with respect to our own systems. We frequently update our systems to support our operations and growth and to remain compliant with applicable laws, rules, and regulations. This updating entails significant costs and creates risks associated with implementing new systems and integrating them with existing ones, including business interruptions. Implementation and testing of controls related to our computer systems, security monitoring, and retaining and training personnel required to operate our systems also entail significant costs. Operational risk exposures could adversely impact our operations, liquidity, and financial condition, as well as cause reputational harm. In addition, we may not have adequate insurance coverage to compensate for losses from a major interruption.
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We face security risks, including denial of service attacks, hacking, social engineering attacks targeting our colleagues and customers, malware intrusion or data corruption attempts, and identity theft that could result in the disclosure of confidential information, adversely affect our business or reputation, and create significant legal and financial exposure.
Our computer systems and network infrastructure and those of third parties, on which we are highly dependent, are subject to security risks and could be susceptible to cyber-attacks, such as denial of service attacks, hacking, terrorist activities, or identity theft. Our business relies on the secure processing, transmission, storage, and retrieval of confidential, proprietary, and other information in our computer and data management systems and networks, and in the computer and data management systems and networks of third parties. In addition, to access our network, products, and services, our customers and other third parties may use personal mobile devices or computing devices that are outside of our network environment and are subject to their own cybersecurity risks.
We, our customers, regulators, and other third parties, including other financial services institutions and companies engaged in data processing, have been subject to, and are likely to continue to be the target of, cyber-attacks. These cyber-attacks include computer viruses, malicious or destructive code, phishing attacks, denial of service or information, ransomware, improper access by employees or vendors, attacks on personal email of employees, ransom demands to not expose security vulnerabilities in our systems or the systems of third parties or other security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss, or destruction of confidential, proprietary, and other information of ours, our employees, our customers, or of third parties, damage our systems or otherwise materially disrupt our or our customers’ or other third parties’ network access or business operations. As cyber-threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities or incidents. Despite efforts to ensure the integrity of our systems and implement controls, processes, policies, and other protective measures, we may not be able to anticipate all security breaches, nor may we be able to implement sufficient preventive measures against such security breaches, which may result in material losses or consequences for us.
Cybersecurity risks for banking organizations have significantly increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, and the use of the internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct financial transactions. For example, cybersecurity risks may increase in the future as we continue to increase our mobile-payment and other internet-based product offerings and expand our internal usage of web-based products and applications. In addition, cybersecurity risks have significantly increased in recent years in part due to the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime affiliates, terrorist organizations, hostile foreign governments, disgruntled employees or vendors, activists, and other external parties, including those involved in corporate espionage. Even the most advanced internal control environment may be vulnerable to compromise. Due to increasing geopolitical tensions, nation state cyber-attacks and ransomware are both increasing in sophistication and prevalence. Targeted social engineering and email attacks (i.e., “spear phishing” attacks) are becoming more sophisticated and are extremely difficult to prevent. In such an attack, an attacker will attempt to fraudulently induce colleagues, customers, or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data or that of our clients. Persistent attackers may succeed in penetrating defenses given enough resources, time, and motive. The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched, and may not be recognized until well after a breach has occurred. The speed at which new vulnerabilities are discovered and exploited often before security patches are published continues to rise. Remote work further increases the risk that we may experience cyber incidents as a result of our employees, vendors, and other third parties with which we interact working remotely on less secure systems and environments.
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The risk of a security breach caused by a cyber-attack at a vendor or by unauthorized vendor access has also increased in recent years. Additionally, the existence of cyber-attacks or security breaches at third-party vendors with access to our data may not be disclosed to us in a timely manner. Further, our ability to monitor our vendors’ cybersecurity practices is limited. Although we generally have agreements relating to cybersecurity and data privacy in place with our vendors, we cannot guarantee that such agreements will prevent a cyber-incident impacting our systems or information or enable us to obtain adequate or any reimbursement from our service providers in the event we should suffer any such incidents. Due to applicable laws and regulations or contractual obligations, we may be held responsible for cyber-incidents attributed to our vendors as they relate to the information we share with them.
We also face indirect technology, cybersecurity, and operational risks relating to the customers, clients, and other third parties with whom we do business or upon whom we rely to facilitate or enable our business activities, including, for example, financial counterparties, regulators, and providers of critical infrastructure such as internet access and electrical power. As a result of increasing consolidation, interdependence, and complexity of financial entities and technology systems, a technology failure, cyber-attack, or other information or security breach that significantly degrades, deletes, or compromises the systems or data of one or more financial entities could have a material impact on counterparties or other market participants, including us. This consolidation, interconnectivity, and complexity increases the risk of operational failure. Any third-party technology failure, cyber-attack, or other information or security breach, termination, or constraint could, among other things, adversely affect our ability to effect transactions, service our clients, manage our exposure to risk, or expand our business.
Cyber-attacks or other information or security breaches, whether directed at us or third parties, may result in a material loss or have material consequences. Furthermore, the public perception that a cyber-attack on our systems has been successful, whether or not this perception is correct, may damage our reputation with customers and third parties with whom we do business. Hacking of personal information and identity theft risks, in particular, could cause serious reputational harm. A successful penetration or circumvention of system security could cause us serious negative consequences, including: loss of customers and business opportunities; costs associated with maintaining business relationships after an attack or breach; significant business disruption to our operations and business, misappropriation, exposure, or destruction of our confidential information, intellectual property, funds, and/or those of our customers; or damage to our or our customers’ and/or third parties’ computers or systems. The occurrence of any of these events could result in a violation of applicable privacy laws and other laws, litigation exposure, regulatory fines, penalties or intervention, loss of confidence in our security measures, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensatory costs, additional compliance costs, and could adversely impact our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition. In addition, we may not have adequate insurance coverage to compensate for losses from a cybersecurity event.
For more information regarding the Company’s process for assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats, refer to Item 1C: Cybersecurity.
Cybersecurity and data privacy are areas of heightened legislative and regulatory focus.
As cybersecurity and data privacy risks for banking organizations and the broader financial system have significantly increased in recent years, cybersecurity and data privacy issues have become the subject of increasing legislative and regulatory focus. The federal bank regulatory agencies have proposed regulations that would enhance cyber risk management standards, which would apply to a wide range of large financial institutions and their third-party service providers, including us and the Bank, and would focus on cyber risk governance and management, management of internal and external dependencies, incident response, cyber resilience, and situational awareness. Laws in all 50 states generally require, among other things, notification to affected individuals when there has been a security breach of their personal data under certain circumstances. For more information regarding cybersecurity and data privacy, refer to Item 1: Business - “Regulatory Matters.”
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We receive, maintain, and store non-public personal information of our customers and counterparties, including, but not limited to, personally identifiable information and personal financial information. The sharing, use, disclosure, and protection of these types of information are governed by federal and state law. Both personally identifiable information and personal financial information are increasingly subject to legislation and regulation, the intent of which is to protect the privacy of personal information and personal financial information that is collected and handled. For example, under California state law, the CCPA broadly defines personal information and substantially increases the rights of California residents to understand how their personal information is collected, used, and otherwise processed by commercial businesses, such as affording them the right to access and request deletion of their information and to opt out of certain sharing and sales of personal information. Numerous other states have also enacted or are in the process of enacting state-level privacy, data protection and/or data security laws and regulations. For more information regarding data privacy laws and regulations, refer to Item 1: Business - “Regulatory Matters.”