SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Operations — Huntington Bancshares Incorporated (Huntington or the Company) is a multi-state diversified regional bank holding company organized under Maryland law in 1966 and headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. Through its subsidiaries, including its bank subsidiary, The Huntington National Bank (the Bank), Huntington is engaged in providing full-service commercial, small business, consumer banking services, mortgage banking services, automobile financing, recreational vehicle and marine financing, equipment leasing, investment management, trust services, brokerage services, customized insurance programs, and other financial products and services. Huntington’s banking offices are located in Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Indiana, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Kentucky. Select financial services and other activities are also conducted in various other states. International banking services are available through the headquarters office in Columbus, Ohio.
Basis of Presentation — The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Huntington and its majority-owned subsidiaries and are presented in accordance with GAAP. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. Entities in which Huntington holds a controlling financial interest are consolidated. For a voting interest entity, a controlling financial interest is generally where Huntington holds, directly or indirectly, more than 50 percent of the outstanding voting shares. For a variable interest entity (VIE), a controlling financial interest is where Huntington has the power to direct the activities of an entity that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance and has an obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE. These losses or benefits, which could potentially be significant to the VIE, are consolidated. For consolidated entities where Huntington holds less than a 100% interest, Huntington recognizes non-controlling interest (included in shareholders’ equity) for the equity held by minority shareholders and non-controlling profit or loss (included in noninterest expense) for the portion of the entity’s earnings attributable to minority interests. Investments in companies that are not consolidated are accounted for using the equity method when Huntington has the ability to exert significant influence. Investments in nonmarketable equity securities for which Huntington does not have the ability to exert significant influence are generally accounted for using the cost method adjusted for change in observable prices. Investments in private investment partnerships that are accounted for under the equity method or the cost method are included in other assets and Huntington’s earnings in equity investments are included in other noninterest income. Investments accounted for under the cost and equity methods are periodically evaluated for impairment.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that significantly affect amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements. Huntington utilizes processes that involve the use of significant estimates and the judgments of management in determining the amount of its allowance for credit losses, income taxes, as well as fair value measurements of investment securities, derivative instruments, goodwill, other intangible assets, pension assets and liabilities, short-term borrowings, mortgage servicing rights, and loans held for sale. As with any estimate, actual results could differ from those estimates.
For statements of cash flows purposes, cash and cash equivalents are defined as the sum of cash and due from banks and interest-bearing deposits at Federal Reserve Bank.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year’s presentation.
Resale and Repurchase Agreements — Securities purchased under agreements to resell and securities sold under agreements to repurchase are treated as collateralized financing transactions and are recorded at the amounts at which the securities were acquired or sold plus accrued interest. The fair value of collateral either received from or provided to a third-party is monitored and additional collateral is obtained or requested to be returned to Huntington in accordance with the agreement.
Securities — Securities purchased with the intention of recognizing short-term profits or which are actively bought and sold are classified as trading account securities and reported at fair value. The unrealized gains or losses on trading account securities are recorded in other noninterest income, except for gains and losses on trading account securities used to economically hedge the fair value of MSRs, which are included in mortgage banking income. Debt securities purchased in which Huntington has the positive intent and ability to hold to their maturity are classified as held-to-maturity securities. Held-to-maturity securities are recorded at amortized cost. All other debt and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale or other securities. Unrealized gains or losses on available-for-sale are reported as a separate component of accumulated OCI in the Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity. Credit-related declines in the value of debt securities that are considered OTTI are recorded in noninterest income.
Huntington evaluates its investment securities portfolio on a quarterly basis for indicators of OTTI. Huntington assesses whether OTTI has occurred when the fair value of a debt security is less than the amortized cost basis at the balance sheet date. Management reviews the amount of unrealized loss, the length of time the security has been in an unrealized loss position, the credit rating history, market trends of similar security classes, time remaining to maturity, and the source of both interest and principal payments to identify securities which could potentially be impaired. For those debt securities that Huntington intends to sell or is more likely than not required to sell, before the recovery of their amortized cost bases, the difference between fair value and amortized cost is considered to be OTTI and is recognized in noninterest income. For those debt securities that Huntington does not intend to sell or is not more likely than not required to sell, prior to expected recovery of amortized cost bases, the credit portion of the OTTI is recognized in noninterest income while the noncredit portion is recognized in OCI. In determining the credit portion, Huntington uses a discounted cash flow analysis, which includes evaluating the timing and amount of the expected cash flows. Non-credit-related OTTI results from other factors, including increased liquidity spreads and higher interest rates. Presentation of OTTI is made in the Consolidated Statements of Income on a gross basis with a reduction for the amount of OTTI recognized in OCI.
Securities transactions are recognized on the trade date (the date the order to buy or sell is executed). The carrying value plus any related accumulated OCI balance of sold securities is used to compute realized gains and losses. Interest on securities, including amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts using the effective interest method over the period to maturity, are included in interest income.
Non-marketable equity securities include stock held for membership and regulatory purposes, such as FHLB stock and FRB stock. These securities are accounted for at cost, evaluated for impairment, and are included in other securities. Other securities also include mutual funds and other marketable equity securities. These securities are carried at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in other noninterest income.
Loans and Leases — Loans and direct financing leases for which Huntington has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future, or until maturity or payoff, are classified in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as loans and leases. Except for purchase credit impaired loans and loans for which the fair value option has been elected, loans and leases are carried at the principal amount outstanding, net of charge-offs, unamortized deferred loan origination fees and costs, premiums and discounts, and unearned income. Direct financing leases are reported at the aggregate of lease payments receivable and estimated residual values, net of unearned and deferred income, and any initial direct costs incurred to originate these leases. Interest income is accrued as earned using the interest method. Huntington defers the fees it receives from the origination of loans and leases, as well as the direct costs of those activities. Huntington also acquires loans at a premium and at a discount to their contractual values. Huntington amortizes loan discounts, premiums, and net loan origination fees and costs over the contractual lives of the related loans using the effective interest method.
Troubled debt restructurings are loans for which the original contractual terms have been modified to provide a concession to a borrower experiencing financial difficulties. Loan modifications are considered TDRs when the concessions provided are not available to the borrower through either normal channels or other sources. However, not all loan modifications are TDRs. Modifications resulting in troubled debt restructurings may include changes to one or more terms of the loan, including but not limited to, a change in interest rate, an extension of the repayment period, a reduction in payment amount, and partial forgiveness or deferment of principal or accrued interest.
Impairment of the residual values of direct financing leases is evaluated quarterly, with those determined to be other than temporary recognized by writing the leases down to fair value with a charge to other noninterest expense. Residual value impairment arises when the expected fair value is less than the carrying amount, net of estimated amounts reimbursable by the lessee. Beginning January 1, 2019, as a result of the implementation of ASC 842, lessors will assess net investments in leases (including residual values) for impairment, and recognize any impairment losses in accordance with the impairment guidance for financial instruments. As such, net investments in leases may be reduced by a recognized allowance for credit losses, with changes recognized as provision expense.
For leased equipment, the residual component of a direct financing lease represents the estimated fair value of the leased equipment at the end of the lease term. Huntington uses industry data, historical experience, and independent appraisals to establish these residual value estimates. Additional information regarding product life cycle, product upgrades, as well as insight into competing products are obtained through relationships with industry contacts and are factored into residual value estimates where applicable.
Loans Held for Sale — Loans in which Huntington does not have the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future are classified as loans held for sale. Loans held for sale are carried at (a) the lower of cost or fair value less cost to sell, or (b) fair value where the fair value option is elected. The fair value option is generally elected for mortgage loans held for sale to facilitate hedging of the loans. The fair value of such loans is estimated based on the inputs that include prices of mortgage backed securities adjusted for other variables such as, interest rates, expected credit defaults and market discount rates. The adjusted value reflects the price we expect to receive from the sale of such loans.
Nonaccrual and Past Due Loans — Loans are considered past due when the contractual amounts due with respect to principal and interest are not received within 30 days of the contractual due date.
Any loan in any portfolio may be placed on nonaccrual status prior to the policies described below when collection of principal or interest is in doubt. When a borrower with debt is discharged in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy and not reaffirmed by the borrower, the loan is determined to be collateral dependent and placed on nonaccrual status, unless there is a co-borrower or the repayment is likely to occur based on objective evidence.
All classes within the C&I and CRE portfolios are placed on nonaccrual status at 90-days past due. First-lien home equity loans are placed on nonaccrual status at 150-days past due. Junior-lien home equity loans are placed on nonaccrual status at the earlier of 120-days past due or when the related first-lien loan has been identified as nonaccrual. Automobile, RV and marine finance and other consumer loans are placed on non-accrual, if not charged off, when the loan is 120-days past due. Residential mortgage loans are placed on nonaccrual status at 150-days past due, with the exception of residential mortgages guaranteed by government agencies which continue to accrue interest at the rate guaranteed by the government agency.
For all classes within all loan portfolios, when a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, any accrued interest income, to the extent it is recognized in the current year, is reversed and charged to interest income, and prior year amounts in interest accrued are charged-off as a credit loss.
For all classes within all loan portfolios, cash receipts on NALs are applied against principal until the loan or lease has been collected in full, including the charged-off portion, after which time any additional cash receipts are recognized as interest income. However, for secured non-reaffirmed debt in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, payments are applied to principal and interest when the borrower has demonstrated a capacity to continue payment of the debt and collection of the debt is reasonably assured. For unsecured non-reaffirmed debt in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy where the carrying value has been fully charged-off, payments are recorded as loan recoveries.
Within the C&I and CRE portfolios, the determination of a borrower’s ability to make the required principal and interest payments is based on an examination of the borrower’s current financial statements, industry, management capabilities, and other qualitative measures. For all classes within the consumer loan portfolio, the determination of a borrower’s ability to make the required principal and interest payments is based on multiple factors, including number of days past due and, in some instances, an evaluation of the borrower’s financial condition. When, in management’s judgment, the borrower’s ability to make required principal and interest payments resumes and collectability is no longer in doubt, supported by sustained repayment history, the loan is returned to accrual status. For these loans that have been returned to accrual status, cash receipts are applied according to the contractual terms of the loan.
Allowance for Credit Losses — Huntington maintains two reserves, both of which reflect management’s judgment regarding the appropriate level necessary to absorb credit losses inherent in our loan and lease portfolio: the ALLL and the AULC. Combined, these reserves comprise the total ACL. The determination of the ACL requires significant estimates, including the timing and amounts of expected future cash flows on impaired loans and leases, consideration of current economic conditions, and historical loss experience pertaining to pools of homogeneous loans and leases, all of which may be susceptible to change.
The appropriateness of the ACL is based on management’s current judgments about the credit quality of the loan portfolio. These judgments consider on-going evaluations of the loan and lease portfolio, including such factors as the differing economic risks associated with each loan category, the financial condition of specific borrowers, the level of delinquent loans, the value of any collateral and, where applicable, the existence of any guarantees or other documented support. Further, management evaluates the impact of changes in interest rates and overall economic conditions on the ability of borrowers to meet their financial obligations when quantifying our exposure to credit losses and assessing the appropriateness of our ACL at each reporting date.
The ALLL consists of two components: (1) the transaction reserve and (2) the general reserve. The transaction reserve component includes both (1) an estimate of loss based on pools of commercial and consumer loans and leases with similar characteristics and (2) an estimate of loss based on an impairment review of each impaired C&I and CRE loan where obligor balance is greater than $1 million. For the C&I and CRE portfolios, the estimate of loss based on pools of loans and leases with similar characteristics is made by applying PD and LGD factors to each individual loan based on a regularly updated loan grade, using a standardized loan grading system. The PD and LGD factors are determined for each loan grade using statistical models based on historical performance data. The PD factor considers on-going reviews of the financial performance of the specific borrower, including cash flow, debt-service coverage ratio, earnings power, debt level, and equity position, in conjunction with an assessment of the borrower’s industry and future prospects. The LGD factor considers analysis of the type of collateral and the relative LTV ratio. These reserve factors are developed based on credit migration models that track historical movements of loans between loan ratings over time and a combination of long-term average loss experience of our own portfolio and external industry data.
In the case of more homogeneous portfolios, such as automobile loans, home equity loans, and residential mortgage loans, the determination of the transaction reserve also incorporates PD and LGD factors. The estimate of loss is based on pools of loans and leases with similar characteristics. The PD factor considers current credit scores unless the account is delinquent, in which case a higher PD factor is used driven by the associated delinquency status. The credit score provides a basis for understanding the borrower’s past and current payment performance, and this information is used to estimate expected losses over the emergence period. The performance of first-lien loans ahead of our junior-lien loans is available to use as part of our updated score process. The LGD factor considers analysis of the type of collateral and the relative LTV ratio. Credit scores, models, analyses, and other factors used to determine both the PD and LGD factors are updated frequently to capture the recent behavioral characteristics of the subject portfolios, as well as any changes in loss mitigation or credit origination strategies, and adjustments to the reserve factors are made as required.
The general reserve consists of various risk-profile reserve components. The risk-profile components consider items unique to our structure, policies, processes, and portfolio composition, as well as qualitative measurements and assessments of the loan portfolios including, but not limited to, concentrations, portfolio composition, industry comparisons, and internal review functions.
The estimate for the AULC is determined using the same procedures and methodologies as used for the ALLL. The loss factors used in the AULC are the same as the loss factors used in the ALLL while also considering historical utilization of unused commitments. The AULC is recorded in other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Charge-off of Uncollectible Loans — Any loan in any portfolio may be charged-off prior to the policies described below if a loss confirming event has occurred. Loss confirming events include, but are not limited to, bankruptcy (unsecured), continued delinquency, foreclosure, or receipt of an asset valuation indicating a collateral deficiency and that asset is the sole source of repayment. Additionally, discharged, collateral dependent non-reaffirmed debt in Chapter 7 bankruptcy filings will result in a charge-off to estimated collateral value, less anticipated selling costs, unless the repayment is likely to occur based on objective evidence.
C&I and CRE loans are generally either charged-off or written down to net realizable value at 90-days past due. Automobile, RV and marine finance and other consumer loans are generally charged-off at 120-days past due. First-lien and junior-lien home equity loans are charged-off to the estimated fair value of the collateral, less anticipated selling costs, at 150-days past due and 120-days past due, respectively. Residential mortgages are charged-off to the estimated fair value of the collateral at 150-days past due.
Impaired Loans — For all classes within the C&I and CRE portfolios, loans with an obligor balance of $1 million or greater are evaluated on a quarterly basis for impairment. Except for TDRs, consumer loans within any class are generally not individually evaluated on a regular basis for impairment. All TDRs, regardless of the outstanding balance amount, are also considered to be impaired. Loans acquired with evidence of deterioration in credit quality since origination for which it is probable at acquisition that all contractually required payments will not be collected are also considered to be impaired.
Once a loan has been identified for an assessment of impairment, the loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement will not be collected. This determination requires significant judgment and use of estimates, and the eventual outcome may differ significantly from those estimates.
When a loan in any class has been determined to be impaired, the amount of the impairment is measured using the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate or, as a practical expedient, the observable market price of the loan, or the fair value of the collateral, less anticipated selling costs, if the loan is collateral dependent. A specific reserve is established as a component of the ALLL when a loan has been determined to be impaired. Subsequent to the initial measurement of impairment, if there is a significant change to the impaired loan’s expected future cash flows, or if actual cash flows are significantly different from the cash flows previously estimated, Huntington recalculates the impairment and appropriately adjusts the specific reserve. Similarly, if Huntington measures impairment based on the observable market price of an impaired loan or the fair value of the collateral of an impaired collateral dependent loan, Huntington will adjust the specific reserve as appropriate.
When a loan within any class is impaired, the accrual of interest income is discontinued unless the receipt of principal and interest is no longer in doubt. Interest income on TDRs is accrued when all principal and interest is expected to be collected under the post-modification terms. Cash receipts on nonaccruing impaired loans within any class are generally applied entirely against principal until the loan has been collected in full (including any portion charged-off) or the loan is deemed current, after which time any additional cash receipts are recognized as interest income. Cash receipts on accruing impaired loans within any class are applied in the same manner as accruing loans that are not considered impaired.
Collateral — We pledge assets as collateral as required for various transactions including security repurchase agreements, public deposits, loan notes, derivative financial instruments, short-term borrowings and long-term borrowings. Assets that have been pledged as collateral, including those that can be sold or repledged by the secured party, continue to be reported on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
We also accept collateral, primarily as part of various transactions including derivative instruments and security resale agreements. Collateral accepted by us, including collateral that we can sell or repledge, is excluded from our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The market value of collateral we have accepted or pledged is regularly monitored and additional collateral is obtained or provided as necessary to ensure appropriate collateral coverage in these transactions.
Premises and Equipment — Premises and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is computed principally by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. Buildings and building improvements are depreciated over an average of 30 to 40 years and 10 to 30 years, respectively. Land improvements and furniture and fixtures are depreciated over an average of 5 to 20 years, while equipment is depreciated over a range of 3 to 10 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the asset’s useful life or the lease term, including any renewal periods for which renewal is reasonably assured. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred, while improvements that extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized and depreciated over the remaining useful life. Amounts in premises and equipment may include items classified as held-for-sale, which are carried at lower of cost or fair value, less costs to sell. Premises and equipment is evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable.
Mortgage Servicing Rights — Huntington recognizes the rights to service mortgage loans as an asset when servicing is contractually separated from the underlying mortgage loans by sale or securitization of the loans with servicing rights retained or when purchased. MSRs are included in servicing rights and other intangible assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
For loan sales with servicing retained, a servicing asset is recorded on the day of the sale at fair value for the right to service the loans sold. To determine the fair value of a MSR, Huntington uses an option adjusted spread cash flow analysis incorporating market implied forward interest rates to estimate the future direction of mortgage and market interest rates. The forward rates utilized are derived from the current yield curve for U.S. dollar interest rate swaps and are consistent with pricing of capital markets instruments. The current and projected mortgage interest rate influences the prepayment rate and, therefore, the timing and magnitude of the cash flows associated with the MSR. Servicing revenues on mortgage loans are included in mortgage banking income.
At the time of initial capitalization, MSRs may be grouped into servicing classes based on the availability of market inputs used in determining fair value and the method used for managing the risks of the servicing assets. MSR assets are recorded using the fair value method or the amortization method. The election of the fair value or amortization method is made at the time each servicing class is established. All newly created MSRs since 2009 were recorded using the amortization method. Any change in the fair value of MSRs carried under the fair value method, as well as amortization and impairment of MSRs under the amortization method, during the period is recorded in mortgage banking income. Huntington economically hedges the value of certain MSRs using derivative instruments and trading securities. Changes in fair value of these derivatives and trading securities are reported as a component of mortgage banking income.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets — Under the acquisition method of accounting, the net assets of entities acquired by
Huntington are recorded at their estimated fair value at the date of acquisition. The excess cost of consideration paid over the fair value of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Other intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized either on an accelerated or straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Goodwill is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis at October 1st of each year or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Other intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable.
Derivative Financial Instruments — A variety of derivative financial instruments, principally interest rate swaps, caps, floors, and collars, are used in asset and liability management activities to protect against the risk of adverse price or interest rate movements. These instruments provide flexibility in adjusting Huntington’s sensitivity to changes in interest rates without exposure to loss of principal and higher funding requirements.
Huntington also uses derivatives, principally loan sale commitments, in hedging its mortgage loan interest rate lock commitments and its mortgage loans held for sale. Mortgage loan sale commitments and the related interest rate lock commitments are carried at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheets with changes in fair value reflected in mortgage banking income. Huntington also uses certain derivative financial instruments to offset changes in value of its MSRs. These derivatives consist primarily of forward interest rate agreements and forward mortgage contracts. The derivative instruments used are not designated as qualifying hedges. Accordingly, such derivatives are recorded at fair value with changes in fair value reflected in mortgage banking income.
Derivative financial instruments are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as either an asset or a liability (in other assets or other liabilities, respectively) and measured at fair value. On the date a derivative contract is entered into, we designate it as either:
Changes in the fair value of a derivative that has been designated and qualifies as a fair value hedge, along with the changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that is attributable to the hedged risk, are recorded in current period earnings. Changes in the fair value of a derivative that has been designated and qualifies as a cash flow hedge are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income, net of income taxes, and reclassified into earnings in the period during which the hedged item affects earnings. Changes in the fair value of derivatives held for trading purposes or which do not qualify for hedge accounting are reported in current period earnings.
For those derivatives to which hedge accounting is applied, Huntington formally documents the hedging relationship and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. This documentation identifies the hedging instrument, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, and, unless the hedge meets all of the criteria to assume there is no ineffectiveness, the method that will be used to assess the effectiveness of the hedging instrument and how ineffectiveness will be measured. The methods utilized to assess retrospective hedge effectiveness, as well as the frequency of testing, vary based on the type of item being hedged and the designated hedge period. For specifically designated fair value hedges of certain fixed-rate debt, Huntington utilizes the short-cut method when certain criteria are met. For other fair value hedges of fixed-rate debt, Huntington utilizes the regression method to evaluate hedge effectiveness on a quarterly basis.
Hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively when:
When hedge accounting is discontinued and the derivative no longer qualifies as an effective fair value or cash flow hedge, the derivative continues to be carried on the balance sheet at fair value.
In the case of a discontinued fair value hedge of a recognized asset or liability, as long as the hedged item continues to exist on the balance sheet, the hedged item will no longer be adjusted for changes in fair value. The basis adjustment that had previously been recorded to the hedged item during the period from the hedge designation date to the hedge discontinuation date is recognized as an adjustment to the yield of the hedged item over the remaining life of the hedged item.
In the case of a discontinued cash flow hedge of a recognized asset or liability, as long as the hedged item continues to exist on the balance sheet, the changes in fair value of the hedging derivative will no longer be recorded to other comprehensive income. The balance applicable to the discontinued hedging relationship will be recognized in earnings over the remaining life of the hedged item as an adjustment to yield. If the discontinued hedged item was a forecasted transaction that is not expected to occur, any amounts recorded on the balance sheet related to the hedged item, including any amounts recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income, are immediately reclassified to current period earnings.
In the case of either a fair value hedge or a cash flow hedge, if the previously hedged item is sold or extinguished, the basis adjustment to the underlying asset or liability or any remaining unamortized AOCI balance will be recognized in the current period earnings.
In all other situations in which hedge accounting is discontinued, the derivative will be carried at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets, with changes in its fair value recognized in current period earnings unless re-designated as a qualifying hedge.
Like other financial instruments, derivatives contain an element of credit risk, which is the possibility that Huntington will incur a loss because the counterparty fails to meet its contractual obligations. Notional values of interest rate swaps and other off-balance sheet financial instruments significantly exceed the credit risk associated with these instruments and represent contractual balances on which calculations of amounts to be exchanged are based. Credit exposure is limited to the sum of the aggregate fair value of positions that have become favorable to Huntington, including any accrued interest receivable due from counterparties. Potential credit losses are mitigated through careful evaluation of counterparty credit standing, selection of counterparties from a limited group of high quality institutions, collateral agreements, and other contract provisions. Huntington considers the value of collateral held and collateral provided in determining the net carrying value of derivatives.
Huntington offsets the fair value amounts recognized for derivative instruments and the fair value for the right to reclaim cash collateral or the obligation to return cash collateral arising from derivative instrument(s) recognized at fair value executed with the same counterparty under a master netting arrangement.
Fair Value Measurements — The Company records or discloses certain of its assets and liabilities at fair value. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Fair value measurements are classified within one of three levels in a valuation hierarchy based upon the observability of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. The three levels are defined as follows:
A financial instrument’s categorization within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
Bank Owned Life Insurance — Huntington’s bank owned life insurance policies are recorded at their cash surrender value. Huntington recognizes tax-exempt income from the periodic increases in the cash surrender value of these policies and from death benefits. A portion of the cash surrender value is supported by holdings in separate accounts. Book value protection for the separate accounts is provided by the insurance carriers and a highly rated major bank.
Transfers of Financial Assets and Securitizations — Transfers of financial assets in which we have surrendered control over the transferred assets are accounted for as sales. In assessing whether control has been surrendered, we consider whether the transferee would be a consolidated affiliate, the existence and extent of any continuing involvement in the transferred financial assets, and the impact of all arrangements or agreements made contemporaneously with, or in contemplation of, the transfer, even if they were not entered into at the time of transfer. Control is generally considered to have been surrendered when (i) the transferred assets have been legally isolated from us or any of our consolidated affiliates, even in bankruptcy or other receivership, (ii) the transferee (or, if the transferee is an entity whose sole purpose is to engage in securitization or asset-backed financing that is constrained from pledging or exchanging the assets it receives, each third-party holder of its beneficial interests) has the right to pledge or exchange the assets (or beneficial interests) it received without any constraints that provide more than a trivial benefit to us, and (iii) neither we nor our consolidated affiliates and agents have (a) both the right and obligation under any agreement to repurchase or redeem the transferred assets before their maturity, (b) the unilateral ability to cause the holder to return specific financial assets that also provides us with a more-than-trivial benefit (other than through a cleanup call) or (c) an agreement that permits the transferee to require us to repurchase the transferred assets at a price so favorable that it is probable that it will require us to repurchase them.
If the sale criteria are met, the transferred financial assets are removed from our balance sheet and a gain or loss on sale is recognized. If the sale criteria are not met, the transfer is recorded as a secured borrowing in which the assets remain on our balance sheet and the proceeds from the transaction are recognized as a liability. For the majority of financial asset transfers, it is clear whether or not we have surrendered control. For other transfers, such as in the case of complex transactions or where we have continuing involvement, we generally obtain a legal opinion as to whether the transfer results in a true sale by law.
Gains and losses on the loans and leases sold and servicing rights associated with loan and lease sales are determined when the related loans or leases are sold to either a securitization trust or third-party. For loan or lease sales with servicing retained, a servicing asset is recorded at fair value for the right to service the loans sold.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits — Huntington recognizes the funded status of the postretirement benefit plans on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Net postretirement benefit cost charged to current earnings related to these plans is predominantly based on various actuarial assumptions regarding expected future experience.
Certain employees are participants in various defined contribution and other non-qualified supplemental retirement plans. Contributions to defined contribution plans are charged to current earnings.
In addition, we maintain a 401(k) plan covering substantially all employees. Employer contributions to the plan are charged to current earnings.
Noninterest Income — Huntington recognizes revenue when the performance obligations related to the transfer of goods or services under the terms of a contract are satisfied. Some obligations are satisfied at a point in time while others are satisfied over a period of time. Revenue is recognized as the amount of consideration to which Huntington expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer. When consideration includes a variable component, the amount of consideration attributable to variability is included in the transaction price only to the extent it is probable that significant revenue recognized will not be reversed when uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. Generally, the variability relating to the consideration is explicitly stated in the contracts, but may also arise from Huntington’s customer business practice, for example, waiving certain fees related to customer’s deposit accounts such as NSF fees. Huntington’s contracts generally do not contain terms that require significant judgement to determine the variability impacting the transaction price.
Revenue is segregated based on the nature of product and services offered as part of contractual arrangements. Revenue from contracts with customers is broadly segregated as follows:
Certain volume or transaction based interchange expenses (net of rebates) paid to the payment network reduce the interchange revenue and are presented net on the income statement. Similarly, rewards payable under a reward program to cardholders are recognized as a reduction of the transaction price and are presented net against the interchange revenue.
Control is transferred to a customer either at a point in time or over time. A performance obligation is deemed satisfied when the control over goods or services is transferred to the customer. To determine when control is transferred at a point in time, Huntington considers indicators, including but not limited to the right to payment for the asset, transfer of significant risk and rewards of ownership of the asset and acceptance of the asset by the customer. When control is transferred over a period of time, for different performance obligations, either the input or output method is used to determine the progress. The measure of progress used to assess completion of the performance obligation varies between performance obligations and may be based on time throughout the period of service or on the value of goods and services transferred to the customer. As each distinct service or activity is performed, Huntington transfers control to the customer based on the services performed as the customer simultaneously receives the benefits of those services. This timing of revenue recognition aligns with the resolution of any uncertainty related to variable consideration. Costs to obtain a revenue producing contract are expensed when incurred as a practical expedient as the contractual period for majority of contracts is one year or less.
Revenue is recorded in the business segment responsible for the related product or service. Fee sharing arrangements exist to allocate portions of such revenue to other business segments involved in selling to, or providing service to, customers. Business segment results are determined based upon management’s reporting system, which assigns balance sheet and income statement items to each of the business segments. The process is designed around Huntington’s organizational and management structure and, accordingly, the results derived are not necessarily comparable with similar information published by other financial institutions.
Income Taxes — Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Accordingly, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future book and tax consequences attributable to temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined using enacted tax rates expected to apply in the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income at the time of enactment of such change in tax rates.
Any interest or penalties due for payment of income taxes are included in the provision for income taxes. To the extent we do not consider it more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will be recovered, a valuation allowance is recorded. All positive and negative evidence is reviewed when determining how much of a valuation allowance is recognized on a quarterly basis. In determining the requirements for a valuation allowance, sources of possible taxable income are evaluated including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards, taxable income in appropriate carryback years, and tax-planning strategies. Huntington applies a more likely than not recognition threshold for all tax uncertainties.
Share-Based Compensation — Huntington uses the fair value based method of accounting for awards of HBAN stock granted to employees under various share-based compensation plans. Share-based compensation costs are recognized prospectively for all new awards granted under these plans. Compensation expense relating to stock options is calculated using a methodology that is based on the underlying assumptions of the Black-Scholes option pricing model and is charged to expense over the requisite service period (e.g., vesting period). Compensation expense relating to restricted stock awards is based upon the fair value of the awards on the date of grant and is charged to earnings over the requisite service period (e.g., vesting period) of the award.
Stock Repurchases — Acquisitions of Huntington stock are recorded at cost.
Segment Results — Accounting policies for the business segments are the same as those used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements with respect to activities specifically attributable to each business segment. However, the preparation of business segment results requires management to establish methodologies to allocate funding costs and benefits, expenses, and other financial elements to each business segment, which are described in Note 23.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef