Loans and Leases and Allowance for Credit Losses
|3 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2012
|Loans / Leases and Allowance for Credit Losses [Abstract]|
|Loans / Leases AND ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES||
3. Loans / Leases AND ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES
Loans and leases for which Huntington has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future (at least 12 months), or until maturity or payoff, are classified in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as loans and leases. Except for loans which are accounted for at fair value, loans and leases are carried at the principal amount outstanding, net of unamortized deferred loan origination fees and costs and net of unearned income. At September 30, 2012, and December 31, 2011, the aggregate amount of these net unamortized deferred loan origination fees and costs and net unearned income was $288.7 million and $122.5 million, respectively.
Loan and Lease Portfolio Composition
The following table provides a detailed listing of Huntington's loan and lease portfolio at September 30, 2012, and December 31, 2011:
As shown in the table above, the primary loan and lease portfolios are: C&I, CRE, automobile, home equity, residential mortgage, and other consumer. For ACL purposes, these portfolios are further disaggregated into classes. The classes within each portfolio are as follows:
Fidelity Bank acquisition
(See Note 19 for additional information regarding the Fidelity Bank acquisition).
On March 30, 2012, Huntington acquired the loans of Fidelity Bank located in Dearborn, Michigan from the FDIC. Under the agreement, approximately $520.6 million of loans were transferred to Huntington. These loans were recorded at fair value in accordance with ASC 805, “Business Combinations”. The fair values for the loans were estimated using discounted cash flow analyses using interest rates currently being offered for loans with similar terms (Level 3), and reflected an estimate of probable losses and the credit risk associated with the loans.
Loans Acquired With Deteriorated Credit Quality
ASC 310-30, “Loans and Debt Securities Acquired With Deteriorated Credit Quality”, provides guidance for accounting for acquired loans that have experienced a deterioration of credit quality at the time of acquisition for which it is probable that the investor will be unable to collect all contractually required payments. The excess of cash flows expected at acquisition over the initial investment in the loan is referred to as the accretable yield and is recognized in interest income over the remaining life of the loan, or pool of loans, in situations where there is a reasonable expectation about the timing and amount of cash flows expected to be collected. The difference between the contractually required payments at acquisition and the cash flows expected to be collected at acquisition, considering the impact of prepayments, is referred to as the nonaccretable difference. Subsequent decreases to the expected cash flows will generally result in an increase to the allowance for loan and lease losses. Subsequent increases in cash flows result in reversal of any nonaccretable difference (or allowance for loan and lease losses to the extent any has been recorded) with a positive impact on interest income. The measurement of undiscounted cash flows involves assumptions and judgments for credit risk, interest rate risk, prepayment risk, default rates, loss severity, payment speeds, and collateral values. All of these factors are inherently subjective and significant changes in the cash flow estimates over the life of the loan can result.
The fair values for loans were estimated using discounted cash flow analyses, including prepayment assumptions and using interest rates currently being offered for loans with similar terms (Level 3). This value was reduced by an estimate of probable losses and the credit risk associated with the loans.
The following table presents a rollforward of the accretable yield for three-month and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2012:
At September 30, 2012, there was no allowance for loan losses recorded on the purchased impaired loan portfolio and no adjustment to either the accretable or nonaccretable yield was required. The following table reflects the outstanding balance of all contractually required payments and carrying amounts of the acquired loans at September 30, 2012:
Loan and Lease Purchases and Sales
The following table summarizes significant portfolio loan and lease purchase and sale activity for the three-month and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2012 and 2011:
NALs and Past Due Loans
Loans are considered past due when the contractual amounts due with respect to principal and interest are not received within 30 days of the contractual due date.
Any loan in any portfolio may be placed on nonaccrual status prior to the policies described below when collection of principal or interest is in doubt.
All classes within the C&I and CRE portfolios are placed on nonaccrual status at 90-days past due. Residential mortgage loans are placed on nonaccrual status at 150-days past due, with the exception of residential mortgages guaranteed by government organizations which continue to accrue interest. First-lien home equity loans are placed on nonaccrual status at 150-days past due. Junior-lien home equity loans are placed on nonaccrual status at the earlier of 120-days past due or when the related first-lien loan has been identified as nonaccrual. Automobile and other consumer loans are not placed on nonaccrual status, but are generally charged-off when the loan is 120-days past due. However, when a borrower with discharged non-reaffirmed debt in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy is identified and the loan is determined to be collateral dependent, the consumer loan is placed on nonaccrual status.
For all classes within all loan portfolios, when a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, any accrued interest income is reversed with current year accruals charged to interest income, and prior year amounts charged-off as a credit loss.
For all classes within all loan portfolios, cash receipts received on NALs are applied entirely against principal until the loan or lease has been collected in full, after which time any additional cash receipts are recognized as interest income.
Regarding all classes within the C&I and CRE portfolios, the determination of a borrower's ability to make the required principal and interest payments is based on an examination of the borrower's current financial statements, industry, management capabilities, and other qualitative measures. For all classes within the consumer loan portfolio, the determination of a borrower's ability to make the required principal and interest payments is based on multiple factors, including number of days past due and, in some instances, an evaluation of the borrower's financial condition. When, in Management's judgment, the borrower's ability to make required principal and interest payments resumes and collectability is no longer in doubt, the loan or lease is returned to accrual status. For these loans that have been returned to accrual status, cash receipts are applied according to the contractual terms of the loan.
The following table presents NALs by loan class at September 30, 2012, and December 31, 2011 (1):
The following table presents an aging analysis of loans and leases, including past due loans, by loan class at September 30, 2012, and December 31, 2011: (1)
Allowance for Credit Losses
Huntington maintains two reserves, both of which reflect Management's judgment regarding the appropriate level necessary to absorb credit losses inherent in our loan and lease portfolio: the ALLL and the AULC. Combined, these reserves comprise the total ACL. The determination of the ACL requires significant estimates, including the timing and amounts of expected future cash flows on impaired loans and leases, consideration of current economic conditions, and historical loss experience pertaining to pools of homogeneous loans and leases, all of which may be susceptible to change.
The appropriateness of the ACL is based on Management's current judgments about the credit quality of the loan portfolio. These judgments consider on-going evaluations of the loan and lease portfolio, including such factors as the differing economic risks associated with each loan category, the financial condition of specific borrowers, the level of delinquent loans, the value of any collateral and, where applicable, the existence of any guarantees or other documented support. Further, Management evaluates the impact of changes in interest rates and overall economic conditions on the ability of borrowers to meet their financial obligations when quantifying our exposure to credit losses and assessing the appropriateness of our ACL at each reporting date. In addition to general economic conditions and the other factors described above, additional factors also considered include: the impact of declining residential real estate values; the diversification of CRE loans; the development of new or expanded Commercial business segments such as Healthcare, Asset Based Lending, and Energy, and the overall condition of the manufacturing industry. Also, the ACL assessment includes the on-going assessment of credit quality metrics, and a comparison of certain ACL benchmarks to current performance. Management's determinations regarding the appropriateness of the ACL are reviewed and approved by the Company's board of directors.
The ALLL consists of two components: (1) the transaction reserve, which includes a loan level allocation per ASC 310-10, specific reserves related to loans considered to be impaired, and loans involved in troubled debt restructurings allocated per ASC 310-40, and (2) the general reserve. The transaction reserve component includes both (1) an estimate of loss based on pools of commercial and consumer loans and leases with similar characteristics and (2) an estimate of loss based on an impairment review of each impaired C&I and CRE loan greater than $1.0 million. For the C&I and CRE portfolios, the estimate of loss based on pools of loans and leases with similar characteristics is made by applying a PD factor and a LGD factor to each individual loan based on a continuously updated loan grade, using a standardized loan grading system. The PD factor and an LGD factor are determined for each loan grade using statistical models based on historical performance data. The PD factor considers on-going reviews of the financial performance of the specific borrower, including cash flow, debt-service coverage ratio, earnings power, debt level, and equity position, in conjunction with an assessment of the borrower's industry and future prospects. The LGD factor considers analysis of the type of collateral and the relative LTV ratio. These reserve factors are developed based on credit migration models that track historical movements of loans between loan ratings over time and a combination of long-term average loss experience of our own portfolio and external industry data using a 24-month emergence period.
In the case of more homogeneous portfolios, such as automobile loans, home equity loans, and residential mortgage loans, the determination of the transaction reserve also incorporates PD and LGD factors. The estimate of loss is based on pools of loans and leases with similar characteristics. The PD factor considers current credit scores unless the account is delinquent, in which case a higher PD factor is used. The credit score provides a basis for understanding the borrowers past and current payment performance, and this information is used to estimate expected losses over the 12-month emergence period. The performance of first-lien loans ahead of our junior-lien loans is available to use as part of our updated score process. The LGD factor considers analysis of the type of collateral and the relative LTV ratio. Credit scores, models, analyses, and other factors used to determine both the PD and LGD factors are updated frequently to capture the recent behavioral characteristics of the subject portfolios, as well as any changes in loss mitigation or credit origination strategies, and adjustments to the reserve factors are made as required. Models utilized in the ALLL estimation process are subject to the Company's model validation policies.
The general reserve consists of the economic reserve and risk-profile reserve components. The economic reserve component considers the potential impact of changing market and economic conditions on portfolio performance. The risk-profile component considers items unique to our structure, policies, processes, and portfolio composition, as well as qualitative measurements and assessments of the loan portfolios including, but not limited to, management quality, concentrations, portfolio composition, industry comparisons, and internal review functions.
The estimate for the AULC is determined using the same procedures and methodologies as used for the ALLL. The loss factors used in the AULC are the same as the loss factors used in the ALLL while also considering a historical utilization of unused commitments. The AULC is reflected in accrued expenses and other liabilities in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet.
The ACL is increased through a provision for credit losses that is charged to earnings, based on Management's quarterly evaluation of the factors previously mentioned, and is reduced by charge-offs, net of recoveries, and the ACL associated with securitized or sold loans. Management did not substantially change any material aspect of the overall approach in the determination of either the ALLL or AULC, and there were no material changes in assumptions or estimation techniques compared with prior periods that impacted the determination of the current period's ALLL and AULC. The impact of the Chapter 7 bankruptcy loans was primarily associated with NALs and NCOs, with minimal impact to the ALLL.
The following table presents ALLL and AULC activity by portfolio segment for the three-month and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2012 and 2011: (1)
Any loan in any portfolio may be charged-off prior to the policies described below if a loss confirming event has occurred. Loss confirming events include, but are not limited to, bankruptcy (unsecured), continued delinquency, foreclosure, or receipt of an asset valuation indicating a collateral deficiency and that asset is the sole source of repayment. Additionally, discharged, collateral dependent non-reaffirmed debt in Chapter 7 bankruptcy filings will result in a charge-off to estimated collateral value, less anticipated selling costs.
C&I and CRE loans are either charged-off or written down to net realizable value at 90-days past due. Automobile loans and other consumer loans are charged-off at 120-days past due. First-lien and junior-lien home equity loans are charged-off to the estimated fair value of the collateral, less anticipated selling costs, at 150-days past due and 120-days past due, respectively. Residential mortgages are charged-off to the estimated fair value of the collateral, less anticipated selling costs, at 150-days past due.
Credit Quality Indicators
To facilitate the monitoring of credit quality for C&I and CRE loans, and for purposes of determining an appropriate ACL level for these loans, Huntington utilizes the following categories of credit grades:
Pass = Higher quality loans that do not fit any of the other categories described below.
OLEM = The credit risk may be relatively minor yet represent a risk given certain specific circumstances. If the potential weaknesses are not monitored or mitigated, the loan may weaken or the collateral may be inadequate to protect Huntington's position in the future. For these reasons, Huntington considers the loans to be potential problem loans.
Substandard = Inadequately protected loans by the borrower's ability to repay, equity, and/or the collateral pledged to secure the loan. These loans have identified weaknesses that could hinder normal repayment or collection of the debt. It is likely Huntington will sustain some loss if any identified weaknesses are not mitigated.
Doubtful = Loans that have all of the weaknesses inherent in those loans classified as Substandard, with the added elements of the full collection of the loan is improbable and that the possibility of loss is high.
The categories above, which are derived from standard regulatory rating definitions, are assigned upon initial approval of the loan or lease and subsequently updated as appropriate.
Commercial loans categorized as OLEM, Substandard, or Doubtful are considered Criticized loans. Commercial loans categorized as Substandard or Doubtful are also considered Classified loans.
For all classes within all consumer loan portfolios, each loan is assigned a specific PD factor that is partially based on the borrower's most recent credit bureau score (FICO), which we update quarterly. A FICO credit bureau score is a credit score developed by Fair Isaac Corporation based on data provided by the credit bureaus. The FICO credit bureau score is widely accepted as the standard measure of consumer credit risk used by lenders, regulators, rating agencies, and consumers. The higher the FICO credit bureau score, the higher likelihood of repayment and therefore, an indicator of higher credit quality.
Huntington assesses the risk in the loan portfolio by utilizing numerous risk characteristics. The classifications described above, and also presented in the table below, represent one of those characteristics that are closely monitored in the overall credit risk management processes. The table below shows increases in FICO scores <650 for both the automobile and first-lien home equity portfolios. These increases do not reflect a deterioration in asset quality for the portfolios, as other risk characteristics mitigate any increased level of risk associated with the FICO score distribution.
The following table presents each loan and lease class by credit quality indicator at September 30, 2012, and December 31, 2011:
For all classes within the C&I and CRE portfolios, all loans with an outstanding balance of $1.0 million or greater are evaluated on a quarterly basis for impairment. Generally, consumer loans within any class are not individually evaluated on a regular basis for impairment. All TDRs, regardless of the outstanding balance amount, are also considered to be impaired. Also, loans acquired with evidence of deterioration of credit quality since origination for which it is probable, at acquisition, that all contractually required payments will not be collected are also considered to be impaired.
Once a loan has been identified for an assessment of impairment, the loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement will not be collected. This determination requires significant judgment and use of estimates, and the eventual outcome may differ significantly from those estimates.
When a loan in any class has been determined to be impaired, the amount of the impairment is measured using the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan's effective interest rate or, as a practical expedient, the observable market price of the loan, or the fair value of the collateral, less anticipated selling costs, if the loan is collateral dependent. When the present value of expected future cash flows is used, the effective interest rate is the original contractual interest rate of the loan adjusted for any premium or discount. When the contractual interest rate is variable, the effective interest rate of the loan changes over time. A specific reserve is established as a component of the ALLL when a loan has been determined to be impaired. Subsequent to the initial measurement of impairment, if there is a significant change to the impaired loan's expected future cash flows, or if actual cash flows are significantly different from the cash flows previously estimated, Huntington recalculates the impairment and appropriately adjusts the specific reserve. Similarly, if Huntington measures impairment based on the observable market price of an impaired loan or the fair value of the collateral of an impaired collateral dependent loan, Huntington will adjust the specific reserve.
When a loan within any class is impaired, the accrual of interest income is discontinued unless the receipt of principal and interest is no longer in doubt. Interest income on TDRs is accrued when all principal and interest is expected to be collected under the post-modification terms. Cash receipts received on nonaccruing impaired loans within any class are generally applied entirely against principal until the loan has been collected in full, after which time any additional cash receipts are recognized as interest income. Cash receipts received on accruing impaired loans within any class are applied in the same manner as accruing loans that are not considered impaired.
The following tables present the balance of the ALLL attributable to loans by portfolio segment individually and collectively evaluated for impairment and the related loan and lease balance at September 30, 2012, and December 31, 2011:
The following tables present by class the ending, unpaid principal balance, and the related ALLL, along with the average balance and interest income recognized only for loans and leases individually evaluated for impairment: (1), (2)
TDRs are modified loans where a concession was provided to a borrower experiencing financial difficulties. Loan modifications are considered TDRs when the concessions provided are not available to the borrower through either normal channels or other sources. However, not all loan modifications are TDRs.
TDR Concession Types
The Company's standards relating to loan modifications consider, among other factors, minimum verified income requirements, cash flow analysis, and collateral valuations. Each potential loan modification is reviewed individually and the terms of the loan are modified to meet a borrower's specific circumstances at a point in time. Commercial loan modifications, including those classified as TDRs, are reviewed and approved by our SAD. The types of concessions provided to borrowers include:
TDRs by Loan Type
Following is a description of TDRs by the different loan types:
Commercial loan TDRs – Commercial accruing TDRs often result from loans receiving a concession with terms that are not considered a market transaction to Huntington. The TDR remains in accruing status as long as the customer is less than 90-days past due on payments per the restructured loan terms and no loss is expected.
Commercial nonaccrual TDRs result from either: (1) an accruing commercial TDR being placed on nonaccrual status, or (2) a workout where an existing commercial NAL is restructured and a concession was given. At times, these workouts restructure the NAL so that two or more new notes are created. The primary note is underwritten based upon our normal underwriting standards and is sized so projected cash flows are sufficient to repay contractual principal and interest. The terms on the secondary note(s) vary by situation, and may include notes that defer principal and interest payments until after the primary note is repaid. Creating two or more notes often allows the borrower to continue a project or weather a temporary economic downturn and allows Huntington to right-size a loan based upon the current expectations for a borrower's or project's performance.
Our strategy involving TDR borrowers includes working with these borrowers to allow them to refinance elsewhere, as well as allow them time to improve their financial position and remain our customer through refinancing their notes according to market terms and conditions in the future. A refinancing or modification of a loan occurs when either the loan matures according to the terms of the TDR-modified agreement or the borrower requests a change to the loan agreements. At that time, the loan is evaluated to determine if it is creditworthy. It is subjected to the normal underwriting standards and processes for other similar credit extensions, both new and existing.
In accordance with ASC 310-20-35, the refinanced note is evaluated to determine if it is considered a new loan or a continuation of the prior loan. A new loan is considered for removal of the TDR designation, whereas a continuation of the prior note requires a continuation of the TDR designation. In order for a TDR designation to be removed, the borrower must no longer be experiencing financial difficulties and the terms of the refinanced loan must not represent a concession.
Residential Mortgage loan TDRs – Residential mortgage TDRs represent loan modifications associated with traditional first-lien mortgage loans in which a concession has been provided to the borrower. The primary concessions given to residential mortgage borrowers are amortization or maturity date changes and interest rate reductions. Residential mortgages identified as TDRs involve borrowers unable to refinance their mortgages through the Company's normal mortgage origination channels or through other independent sources. Some, but not all, of the loans may be delinquent.
Automobile, Home Equity, and Other Consumer loan TDRs – The Company may make similar interest rate, term, and principal concessions as with residential mortgage loan TDRs.
TDR Impact on Credit Quality
Huntington's ALLL is largely driven by updated risk ratings assigned to commercial loans, updated borrower credit scores on consumer loans, and borrower delinquency history in both the commercial and consumer portfolios. These updated risk ratings and credit scores consider the default history of the borrower, including payment redefaults. As such, the provision for credit losses is impacted primarily by changes in borrower payment performance rather than the TDR classification. TDRs can be classified as either accrual or nonaccrual loans. Nonaccrual TDRs are included in NALs whereas accruing TDRs are excluded from NALs as it is probable that all contractual principal and interest due under the restructured terms will be collected.
Our TDRs may include multiple concessions and the disclosure classifications are presented based on the primary concession provided to the borrower. The majority of our concessions for the C&I and CRE portfolios are the extension of the maturity date coupled with an increase in the interest rate. In these instances, the primary concession is the maturity date extension.
TDR concessions may also result in the reduction of the ALLL within the C&I and CRE portfolios. This reduction is derived from payments and the resulting application of the reserve calculation within the ALLL. The transaction reserve for non-TDR C&I and CRE loans is calculated based upon several estimated probability factors, such as PD and LGD, both of which were previously discussed above. Upon the occurrence of a TDR in our C&I and CRE portfolios, the reserve is measured based on discounted expected cash flows of the modified loan in accordance with ASC 310-10. The resulting TDR ALLL calculation often results in a lower ALLL amount because (1) the discounted expected cash flows indicate a lower estimated loss, (2) if the modification includes a rate increase, the discounting of the cash flows on the modified loan, using the pre-modification interest rate, exceeds the carrying value of the loan, or (3) payments may occur as part of the modification. The ALLL for C&I and CRE loans may increase as a result of the modification, as the discounted cash flow analysis may indicate additional reserves are required.
TDR concessions on consumer loans may increase the ALLL. The concessions made to these borrowers often include interest rate reductions, and therefore, the TDR ALLL calculation results in a greater ALLL compared with the non-TDR calculation as the reserve is measured based on the estimation of the discounted expected cash flows on the modified loan in accordance with ASC 310-10. The resulting TDR ALLL calculation often results in a higher ALLL amount because (1) the discounted expected cash flows indicate a higher estimated loss or, (2) due to the rate decrease, the discounting of the cash flows on the modified loan, using the pre-modification interest rate, indicates a reduction in the expected cash flows. In certain instances, the ALLL may decrease as a result of payments made in connection with the modification.
Commercial loan TDRs – In instances where the bank substantiates that it will collect its outstanding balance in full, the note is considered for return to accrual status upon the borrower sustaining sufficient cash flows for a six-month period of time. This six-month period could extend before or after the restructure date. If a charge-off was taken as part of the restructuring, any interest or principal payments received on that note are applied to first reduce the bank's outstanding book balance and then to recoveries of charged-off principal, unpaid interest, and/or fee expenses.
Residential Mortgage, Automobile, Home Equity, and Other Consumer loan TDRs – Modified loans identified as TDRs are aggregated into pools for analysis. Cash flows and weighted average interest rates are used to calculate impairment at the pooled-loan level. Once the loans are aggregated into the pool, they continue to be classified as TDRs until contractually repaid or charged-off.
Residential mortgage loans not guaranteed by a U.S. government agency such as the FHA, VA, and the USDA, including TDR loans, are reported as accrual or nonaccrual based upon delinquency status. Nonaccrual TDRs are those that are greater than 150-days contractually past due. Loans guaranteed by U.S. government organizations continue to accrue interest upon delinquency.
The following tables present by class and by the reason for the modification, the number of contracts, post-modification outstanding balance, and the financial effects of the modification for the three-month and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2012 and 2011: