The allowance for credit losses is deducted from the amortized cost basis of a financial asset or a group of financial assets so that the balance sheet reflects the net amount Huntington expects to collect. Amortized cost is the principal balance outstanding, net of purchase premiums and discounts, fair value hedge accounting adjustments, and deferred fees and costs. Subsequent changes (favorable and unfavorable) in expected credit losses are recognized immediately in net income as a credit loss expense or a reversal of credit loss expense. Management estimates the allowance by projecting probability-of-default, loss-given-default and exposure-at-default depending on economic parameters for each month of the remaining contractual term. Those economic parameters are developed using available information relating to past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Huntington’s reasonable and supportable forecast period reverts to a historical norm based on inputs within approximately two to three years. The reversion period is dependent on the state of the economy at the beginning of the forecast. Historical credit experience provides the basis for the estimation of expected credit losses, with adjustments made for differences in current loan-specific risk characteristics such as differences in underwriting standards, portfolio mix, delinquency levels and terms, as well as for changes in the micro- and macro-economic environments. The contractual terms of financial assets are adjusted for expected prepayments and any extensions outside of Huntington’s control.
Loans that are determined to have unique risk characteristics are evaluated on an individual basis by management. If a loan is determined to be collateral dependent, or meets the criteria to apply the collateral dependent practical expedient, expected credit losses are determined based on the fair value of the collateral at the reporting date, less costs to sell as appropriate.
Loans with unique risk characteristics that are not subject to collateral dependent accounting, are assessed using a discounted cash flows methodology. The allowance for credit losses is measured on a collective (pool) basis when similar risk characteristics exist. Management believes the products within each of the entity’s portfolio classes exhibit similar risk characteristics. Huntington has identified its portfolio classes as disclosed above.