Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2014
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Loans Past Due, Policy [Policy Text Block]

Loans are considered past due when the contractual amounts due with respect to principal and interest are not received within 30 days of the contractual due date.


Nonaccrual Loans, Policy [Policy Text Block]

Any loan in any portfolio may be placed on nonaccrual status prior to the policies described below when collection of principal or interest is in doubt. When a borrower with debt is discharged in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy and not reaffirmed by the borrower, the loan is determined to be collateral dependent and placed on nonaccrual status.


All classes within the C&I and CRE portfolios (except for purchased credit-impaired loans) are placed on nonaccrual status at 90-days past due. Residential mortgage loans are placed on nonaccrual status at 150-days past due, with the exception of residential mortgages guaranteed by government organizations which continue to accrue interest at the rate guaranteed by the government agency. First-lien home equity loans are placed on nonaccrual status at 150-days past due. Junior-lien home equity loans are placed on nonaccrual status at the earlier of 120-days past due or when the related first-lien loan has been identified as nonaccrual. Automobile and other consumer loans are generally charged-off when the loan is 120-days past due.


For all classes within all loan portfolios, when a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, any accrued interest income is reversed with current year accruals charged to interest income, and prior year amounts charged-off as a credit loss.


For all classes within all loan portfolios, cash receipts received on NALs are applied entirely against principal until the loan or lease has been collected in full, after which time any additional cash receipts are recognized as interest income. However, for secured non-reaffirmed debt in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, payments are applied to principal and interest when the borrower has demonstrated a capacity to continue payment of the debt and collection of the debt is reasonably assured. For unsecured non-reaffirmed debt in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy where the carrying value has been fully charged-off, payments are recorded as loan recoveries.


Regarding all classes within the C&I and CRE portfolios, the determination of a borrower's ability to make the required principal and interest payments is based on an examination of the borrower's current financial statements, industry, management capabilities, and other qualitative measures. For all classes within the consumer loan portfolio, the determination of a borrower's ability to make the required principal and interest payments is based on multiple factors, including number of days past due and, in some instances, an evaluation of the borrower's financial condition. When, in Management's judgment, the borrower's ability to make required principal and interest payments resumes and collectability is no longer in doubt, the loan or lease is returned to accrual status. For these loans that have been returned to accrual status, cash receipts are applied according to the contractual terms of the loan.


Allowance for Loan Losses, Policy [Policy Text Block]

Huntington maintains two reserves, both of which reflect Management's judgment regarding the appropriate level necessary to absorb credit losses inherent in our loan and lease portfolio: the ALLL and the AULC. Combined, these reserves comprise the total ACL. The determination of the ACL requires significant estimates, including the timing and amounts of expected future cash flows on impaired loans and leases, consideration of current economic conditions, and historical loss experience pertaining to pools of homogeneous loans and leases, all of which may be susceptible to change.


The appropriateness of the ACL is based on Management's current judgments about the credit quality of the loan portfolio. These judgments consider on-going evaluations of the loan and lease portfolio, including such factors as the differing economic risks associated with each loan category, the financial condition of specific borrowers, the level of delinquent loans, the value of any collateral and, where applicable, the existence of any guarantees or other documented support. Further, Management evaluates the impact of changes in interest rates and overall economic conditions on the ability of borrowers to meet their financial obligations when quantifying our exposure to credit losses and assessing the appropriateness of our ACL at each reporting date. In addition to general economic conditions and the other factors described above, additional factors also considered include: the impact of increasing or decreasing residential real estate values; the diversification of CRE loans; the development of new or expanded Commercial business segments such as healthcare, ABL, and energy, and the overall condition of the manufacturing industry. Also, the ACL assessment includes the on-going assessment of credit quality metrics, and a comparison of certain ACL benchmarks to current performance. Management's determinations regarding the appropriateness of the ACL are reviewed and approved by the Company's board of directors.


The ALLL consists of two components: (1) the transaction reserve, which includes a loan level allocation, specific reserves related to loans considered to be impaired, and loans involved in troubled debt restructurings, and (2) the general reserve. The transaction reserve component includes both (1) an estimate of loss based on pools of commercial and consumer loans and leases with similar characteristics and (2) an estimate of loss based on an impairment review of each impaired C&I and CRE loan greater than $1.0 million. For the C&I and CRE portfolios, the estimate of loss based on pools of loans and leases with similar characteristics is made by applying a PD factor and a LGD factor to each individual loan based on a regularly updated loan grade, using a standardized loan grading system. The PD factor and an LGD factor are determined for each loan grade using statistical models based on historical performance data. The PD factor considers on-going reviews of the financial performance of the specific borrower, including cash flow, debt-service coverage ratio, earnings power, debt level, and equity position, in conjunction with an assessment of the borrower's industry and future prospects. The LGD factor considers analysis of the type of collateral and the relative LTV ratio. These reserve factors are developed based on credit migration models that track historical movements of loans between loan ratings over time and a combination of long-term average loss experience of our own portfolio and external industry data using a 24-month emergence period.


In the case of more homogeneous portfolios, such as automobile loans, home equity loans, and residential mortgage loans, the determination of the transaction reserve also incorporates PD and LGD factors. The estimate of loss is based on pools of loans and leases with similar characteristics. The PD factor considers current credit scores unless the account is delinquent, in which case a higher PD factor is used. The credit score provides a basis for understanding the borrower's past and current payment performance, and this information is used to estimate expected losses over the 12-month emergence period. The performance of first-lien loans ahead of our junior-lien loans is available to use as part of our updated score process. The LGD factor considers analysis of the type of collateral and the relative LTV ratio. Credit scores, models, analyses, and other factors used to determine both the PD and LGD factors are updated frequently to capture the recent behavioral characteristics of the subject portfolios, as well as any changes in loss mitigation or credit origination strategies, and adjustments to the reserve factors are made as required. Models utilized in the ALLL estimation process are subject to the Company's model validation policies.


The general reserve consists of the economic reserve and risk-profile reserve components. The economic reserve component considers the potential impact of changing market and economic conditions on portfolio performance. The risk-profile component considers items unique to our structure, policies, processes, and portfolio composition, as well as qualitative measurements and assessments of the loan portfolios including, but not limited to, management quality, concentrations, portfolio composition, industry comparisons, and internal review functions.


The estimate for the AULC is determined using the same procedures and methodologies as used for the ALLL. The loss factors used in the AULC are the same as the loss factors used in the ALLL while also considering a historical utilization of unused commitments. The AULC is reflected in accrued expenses and other liabilities in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet.


The ACL is increased through a provision for credit losses that is charged to earnings, based on Management's quarterly evaluation of the factors previously mentioned, and is reduced by charge-offs, net of recoveries, and the ACL associated with securitized or sold loans. There were no material changes in assumptions or estimation techniques compared with prior periods that impacted the determination of the current period's ALLL and AULC.

Chargeoff, Policy [Policy Text Block]

Any loan in any portfolio may be charged-off prior to the policies described below if a loss confirming event has occurred. Loss confirming events include, but are not limited to, bankruptcy (unsecured), continued delinquency, foreclosure, or receipt of an asset valuation indicating a collateral deficiency and that asset is the sole source of repayment. Additionally, discharged, collateral dependent non-reaffirmed debt in Chapter 7 bankruptcy filings will result in a charge-off to estimated collateral value, less anticipated selling costs.


C&I and CRE loans are either charged-off or written down to net realizable value at 90-days past due. Automobile loans and other consumer loans are charged-off at 120-days past due. First-lien and junior-lien home equity loans are charged-off to the estimated fair value of the collateral, less anticipated selling costs, at 150-days past due and 120-days past due, respectively. Residential mortgages are charged-off to the estimated fair value of the collateral, less anticipated selling costs, at 150-days past due.


Impaired Loans, Policy [Policy Text Block]

For all classes within the C&I and CRE portfolios, all loans with an outstanding balance of $1.0 million or greater are evaluated on a quarterly basis for impairment. Generally, consumer loans within any class are not individually evaluated on a regular basis for impairment. All TDRs, regardless of the outstanding balance amount, are also considered to be impaired. Loans acquired with evidence of deterioration of credit quality since origination for which it is probable at acquisition that all contractually required payments will not be collected are also considered to be impaired.


Once a loan has been identified for an assessment of impairment, the loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement will not be collected. This determination requires significant judgment and use of estimates, and the eventual outcome may differ significantly from those estimates.



Troubled Debt Restructuring, Policy [Policy Text Block]

TDRs are modified loans where a concession was provided to a borrower experiencing financial difficulties. Loan modifications are considered TDRs when the concessions provided are not available to the borrower through either normal channels or other sources. However, not all loan modifications are TDRs.


TDR Concession Types


The Company's standards relating to loan modifications consider, among other factors, minimum verified income requirements, cash flow analysis, and collateral valuations. Each potential loan modification is reviewed individually and the terms of the loan are modified to meet a borrower's specific circumstances at a point in time. All commercial TDRs are reviewed and approved by our SAD. The types of concessions provided to borrowers include:


  • Interest rate reduction: A reduction of the stated interest rate to a nonmarket rate for the remaining original life of the debt.


  • Amortization or maturity date change beyond what the collateral supports, including any of the following:


  • Lengthens the amortization period of the amortized principal beyond market terms. This concession reduces the minimum monthly payment and increases the amount of the balloon payment at the end of the term of the loan. Principal is generally not forgiven.
  • Reduces the amount of loan principal to be amortized and increases the amount of the balloon payment at the end of the term of the loan. This concession also reduces the minimum monthly payment. Principal is generally not forgiven.
  • Extends the maturity date or dates of the debt beyond what the collateral supports. This concession generally applies to loans without a balloon payment at the end of the term of the loan.


  • Chapter 7 bankruptcy: A bankruptcy court's discharge of a borrower's debt is considered a concession when the borrower does not reaffirm the discharged debt.


  • Other: A concession that is not categorized as one of the concessions described above. These concessions include, but are not limited to: principal forgiveness, collateral concessions, covenant concessions, and reduction of accrued interest.


Principal forgiveness may result from any TDR modification of any concession type. However, the aggregate amount of principal forgiven as a result of loans modified as TDRs during the three-month periods ended March 31, 2014 and 2013, was not significant.


Following is a description of TDRs by the different loan types:


Commercial loan TDRs – Commercial accruing TDRs often result from loans receiving a concession with terms that are not considered a market transaction to Huntington. The TDR remains in accruing status as long as the customer is less than 90-days past due on payments per the restructured loan terms and no loss is expected.


Commercial nonaccrual TDRs result from either: (1) an accruing commercial TDR being placed on nonaccrual status, or (2) a workout where an existing commercial NAL is restructured and a concession was given. At times, these workouts restructure the NAL so that two or more new notes are created. The primary note is underwritten based upon our normal underwriting standards and is sized so projected cash flows are sufficient to repay contractual principal and interest. The terms on the secondary note(s) vary by situation, and may include notes that defer principal and interest payments until after the primary note is repaid. Creating two or more notes often allows the borrower to continue a project or weather a temporary economic downturn and allows Huntington to right-size a loan based upon the current expectations for a borrower's or project's performance.


Our strategy involving TDR borrowers includes working with these borrowers to allow them to refinance elsewhere, as well as allow them time to improve their financial position and remain our customer through refinancing their notes according to market terms and conditions in the future. A subsequent refinancing or modification of a loan may occur when either the loan matures according to the terms of the TDR-modified agreement or the borrower requests a change to the loan agreements. At that time, the loan is evaluated to determine if it is creditworthy. It is subjected to the normal underwriting standards and processes for other similar credit extensions, both new and existing. The refinanced note is evaluated to determine if it is considered a new loan or a continuation of the prior loan. A new loan is considered for removal of the TDR designation, whereas a continuation of the prior note requires a continuation of the TDR designation. In order for a TDR designation to be removed, the borrower must no longer be experiencing financial difficulties and the terms of the refinanced loan must not represent a concession.


Residential Mortgage loan TDRs – Residential mortgage TDRs represent loan modifications associated with traditional first-lien mortgage loans in which a concession has been provided to the borrower. The primary concessions given to residential mortgage borrowers are amortization or maturity date changes and interest rate reductions. Residential mortgages identified as TDRs involve borrowers unable to refinance their mortgages through the Company's normal mortgage origination channels or through other independent sources. Some, but not all, of the loans may be delinquent.


Automobile, Home Equity, and Other Consumer loan TDRs – The Company may make similar interest rate, term, and principal concessions as with residential mortgage loan TDRs.


TDR Impact on Credit Quality


Huntington's ALLL is largely determined by updated risk ratings assigned to commercial loans, updated borrower credit scores on consumer loans, and borrower delinquency history in both the commercial and consumer portfolios. These updated risk ratings and credit scores consider the default history of the borrower, including payment redefaults. As such, the provision for credit losses is impacted primarily by changes in borrower payment performance rather than the TDR classification. TDRs can be classified as either accrual or nonaccrual loans. Nonaccrual TDRs are included in NALs whereas accruing TDRs are excluded from NALs as it is probable that all contractual principal and interest due under the restructured terms will be collected.


Our TDRs may include multiple concessions and the disclosure classifications are presented based on the primary concession provided to the borrower. The majority of our concessions for the C&I and CRE portfolios are the extension of the maturity date coupled with an increase in the interest rate. In these instances, the primary concession is the maturity date extension.


TDR concessions may also result in the reduction of the ALLL within the C&I and CRE portfolios. This reduction is derived from payments and the resulting application of the reserve calculation within the ALLL. The transaction reserve for non-TDR C&I and CRE loans is calculated based upon several estimated probability factors, such as PD and LGD, both of which were previously discussed. Upon the occurrence of a TDR in our C&I and CRE portfolios, the reserve is measured based on discounted expected cash flows or collateral value, less anticipated selling costs, of the modified loan in accordance with ASC 310-10. The resulting TDR ALLL calculation often results in a lower ALLL amount because (1) the discounted expected cash flows or collateral value, less anticipated selling costs, indicate a lower estimated loss, (2) if the modification includes a rate increase, the discounting of the cash flows on the modified loan, using the pre-modification interest rate, exceeds the carrying value of the loan, or (3) payments may occur as part of the modification. The ALLL for C&I and CRE loans may increase as a result of the modification, as the discounted cash flow analysis may indicate additional reserves are required.


TDR concessions on consumer loans may increase the ALLL. The concessions made to these borrowers often include interest rate reductions, and therefore, the TDR ALLL calculation results in a greater ALLL compared with the non-TDR calculation as the reserve is measured based on the estimation of the discounted expected cash flows or collateral value, less anticipated selling costs, on the modified loan in accordance with ASC 310-10. The resulting TDR ALLL calculation often results in a higher ALLL amount because (1) the discounted expected cash flows or collateral value, less anticipated selling costs, indicate a higher estimated loss or, (2) due to the rate decrease, the discounting of the cash flows on the modified loan, using the pre-modification interest rate, indicates a reduction in the expected cash flows or collateral value, less anticipated selling costs. In certain instances, the ALLL may decrease as a result of payments made in connection with the modification.


Commercial loan TDRs – In instances where the bank substantiates that it will collect its outstanding balance in full, the note is considered for return to accrual status upon the borrower sustaining sufficient cash flows for a six-month period of time. This six-month period could extend before or after the restructure date. If a charge-off was taken as part of the restructuring, any interest or principal payments received on that note are applied to first reduce the bank's outstanding book balance and then to recoveries of charged-off principal, unpaid interest, and/or fee expenses while the TDR is in nonaccrual status.


Residential Mortgage, Automobile, Home Equity, and Other Consumer loan TDRs – Modified loans identified as TDRs are aggregated into pools for analysis. Cash flows and weighted average interest rates are used to calculate impairment at the pooled-loan level. Once the loans are aggregated into the pool, they continue to be classified as TDRs until contractually repaid or charged-off.


Residential mortgage loans not guaranteed by a U.S. government agency such as the FHA, VA, and the USDA, including TDR loans, are reported as accrual or nonaccrual based upon delinquency status. Nonaccrual TDRs are those that are greater than 150-days contractually past due. Loans guaranteed by U.S. government organizations continue to accrue interest upon delinquency.


Security Impairment, Policy [Policy Text Block]

Security Impairment


Huntington evaluated OTTI on the debt security types listed below.


Alt-A mortgage-backed and private-label CMO securities are collateralized by first-lien residential mortgage loans. The securities are valued by a third party pricing specialist using a discounted cash flow approach and proprietary pricing model. The model uses inputs such as estimated prepayment speeds, losses, recoveries, default rates that are implied by the underlying performance of collateral in the structure or similar structures, discount rates that are implied by market prices for similar securities, collateral structure types, and house price depreciation / appreciation rates that are based upon macroeconomic forecasts.


Collateralized Debt Obligations are backed by a pool of debt securities issued by financial institutions. The collateral generally consists of trust-preferred securities and subordinated debt securities issued by banks, bank holding companies, and insurance companies. A full cash flow analysis is used to estimate fair values and assess impairment for each security within this portfolio. A third party pricing specialist with direct industry experience in pooled-trust-preferred security evaluations is engaged to provide assistance estimating the fair value and expected cash flows on this portfolio. The full cash flow analysis is completed by evaluating the relevant credit and structural aspects of each pooled-trust-preferred security in the portfolio, including collateral performance projections for each piece of collateral in the security and terms of the security's structure. The credit review includes an analysis of profitability, credit quality, operating efficiency, leverage, and liquidity using available financial and regulatory information for each underlying collateral issuer. The analysis also includes a review of historical industry default data, current/near term operating conditions, and the impact of macroeconomic and regulatory changes.  Using the results of our analysis, we estimate appropriate default and recovery probabilities for each piece of collateral then estimate the expected cash flows for each security. The cumulative probability of default ranges from a low of 2.4% to 100%. 


Many collateral issuers have the option of deferring interest payments on their debt for up to five years.  For issuers who are deferring interest, assumptions are made regarding the issuers ability to resume interest payments and make the required principal payment at maturity; the cumulative probability of default for these issuers currently ranges from 31% to 100%, and a 10% recovery assumption.  The fair value of each security is obtained by discounting the expected cash flows at a market discount rate, ranging from LIBOR plus 3.3% to LIBOR plus 13.5% as of March 31, 2014.  The market discount rate is determined by reference to yields observed in the market for similarly rated collateralized debt obligations, specifically high-yield collateralized loan obligations.  The relatively high market discount rate is reflective of the uncertainty of the cash flows and illiquid nature of these securities.  The large differential between the fair value and amortized cost of some of the securities reflects the high market discount rate and the expectation that the majority of the cash flows will not be received until near the final maturity of the security (the final maturities range from 2032 to 2035).


On December 10, 2013, the Federal Reserve, the OCC, the FDIC, the CFTC and the SEC issued final rules to implement the Volcker Rule contained in section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act, generally to become effective on July 21, 2015. The Volcker Rule prohibits an insured depository institution and its affiliates (referred to as “banking entities”) from: (i) engaging in “proprietary trading” and (ii) investing in or sponsoring certain types of funds (“covered funds”) subject to certain limited exceptions. These prohibitions impact the ability of U.S. banking entities to provide investment management products and services that are competitive with nonbanking firms generally and with non-U.S. banking organizations in overseas markets. The rule also effectively prohibits short-term trading strategies by any U.S. banking entity if those strategies involve instruments other than those specifically permitted for trading.


On January 14, 2014, the five federal agencies approved an interim final rule to permit banking entities to retain interests in certain collateralized debt obligations backed primarily by trust preferred securities from the investment prohibitions of section 619 of the Volcker Rule.  Under the interim final rule, the agencies permit the retention of an interest in or sponsorship of covered funds by banking entities if certain qualifications are met.  In addition, the agencies released a non-exclusive list of issuers that meet the requirements of the interim final rule.  At March 31, 2014, we had investments in ten different pools of trust preferred securities.  Eight of our pools are included in the list of non-exclusive issuers.  We have analyzed the ICONS and I-Pre TSL II pools that were not included on the list and believe that it is more likely than not that we would not be required to sell and will be able to hold these securities to recovery under the final Volcker Rule regulations.

Servicing Rights, Mortgage and Automobile, Policy [Policy Text Block]

A MSR is established only when the servicing is contractually separated from the underlying mortgage loans by sale or securitization of the loans with servicing rights retained. At initial recognition, the MSR asset is established at its fair value using assumptions consistent with assumptions used to estimate the fair value of existing MSRs. At the time of initial capitalization, MSRs may be recorded using either the fair value method or the amortization method. The election of the fair value method or amortization method is made at the time each servicing class is established. Subsequently, servicing rights are accounted for based on the methodology chosen for each respective servicing class. Any increase or decrease in the fair value of MSRs carried under the fair value method, as well as amortization or impairment of MSRs recorded using the amortization method, during the period is recorded as an increase or decrease in mortgage banking income, which is reflected in noninterest income in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income.


Huntington has retained servicing responsibilities on sold automobile loans and receives annual servicing fees and other ancillary fees on the outstanding loan balances. Automobile loan servicing rights are accounted for using the amortization method. A servicing asset is established at fair value at the time of the sale. The servicing asset is then amortized against servicing income. Impairment, if any, is recognized when carrying value exceeds the fair value as determined by calculating the present value of expected net future cash flows. The primary risk characteristic for measuring servicing assets is payoff rates of the underlying loan pools. Valuation calculations rely on the predicted payoff assumption and, if actual payoff is quicker than expected, then future value would be impaired.


Goodwill, Policy [Policy Text Block]

Goodwill acquired during the period was the result of the Camco Financial acquisition, which was completed on March 1, 2014. For additional information, see Business Combinations footnote.


Goodwill is not amortized but is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis at October 1 of each year or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.

Share-based Compensation, Policy [Policy Text Block]

Huntington sponsors nonqualified and incentive share based compensation plans. These plans provide for the granting of stock options and other awards to officers, directors, and other employees. Compensation costs are included in personnel costs on the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income. Stock options are granted at the closing market price on the date of the grant. Options granted typically vest ratably over four years or when other conditions are met. Stock options, which represented a portion of our grant values, have no intrinsic value until the stock price increases. Options granted prior to May 2004 have a term of ten years. All options granted after May 2004 have a term of seven years.


In 2012, shareholders approved the Huntington Bancshares Incorporated 2012 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the Plan) which authorized 51.0 million shares for future grants. The Plan is the only active plan under which Huntington is currently granting share based options and awards. At March 31, 2014, 23.7 million shares from the Plan were available for future grants. Huntington issues shares to fulfill stock option exercises and restricted stock unit and award vesting from available authorized common shares. At March 31, 2014, the Company believes there are adequate authorized common shares to satisfy anticipated stock option exercises and restricted stock unit and award vesting in 2014.


Huntington uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model to value options in determining our share-based compensation expense. Forfeitures are estimated at the date of grant based on historical rates, and updated as necessary, and reduce the compensation expense recognized. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the date of grant. The expected dividend yield is based on the dividend rate and stock price at the date of the grant. Expected volatility is based on the estimated volatility of Huntington's stock over the expected term of the option.

Fair Values of Financial Instruments, Policy [Policy Text Block]

The following table presents the level in the fair value hierarchy for the estimated fair values of only Huntington's financial instruments that are not already on the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value at March 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013:

Commitments and Contingencies, Policy [Policy Text Block]

Through the Company's credit process, Huntington monitors the credit risks of outstanding standby letters-of-credit. When it is probable that a standby letter-of-credit will be drawn and not repaid in full, losses are recognized in the provision for credit losses.

Huntington uses an internal grading system to assess an estimate of loss on its loan and lease portfolio. This same loan grading system is used to monitor credit risk associated with standby letters-of-credit.

Variable Interest Entity, Policy [Policy Text Block]

Huntington has determined the trusts are VIEs. Huntington has concluded that it is the primary beneficiary of these trusts because it has the power to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly affect the entity's economic performance and it has either the obligation to absorb losses of the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE.